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Volume 38 
Number 7 

January 1967 

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EVERAL TIMES 3 year the Museum 
staff is enlivened by the appearance of an 
assortment of Antioch College co-op 
students. These students perform many 
and varied services throughout the Mu- 
seum which may be summarized b)' this 
excerpt from a citation of appreciation 
presented to the Museum in 1956 by 
Samuel B. Gould, then President of An- 
tioch College, Yellovv' Springs, Ohio: 
"They have cleaned skulls, split shale, 
prepared fish skeletons, made card cata- 
logues, mounted plants, sorted pieces of 
pottery, pinned insects, catalogued geo- 
logic maps, prepared albums of pictures, 
reconstructed fossils, and done many of 
the chores required for the maintenance 
of a large museum whose primary pur- 
pose is education." 

In addition to their work-tasks, the 
Antioch students have for years been 
providing Museum staff members with 
anecdotes which have become richer and 
more elaborate with the telling, until 
they are now an integral part of Mu- 
seum lore. The humor is often wry, 
sometimes rueful, but always shows an 
appreciation of both the on-the-job ca- 
pabilities of the students and of their 
achievements in post-Museum years. 

That this appreciation is justified is 
pro\en by a brief list of the professions 
now involving Antioch-Field Museum 
alumni. Among those known are three 
college professors, four librarians, five 
public school teachers, a wildlife techni- 
cal editor, marine biologist, anthropolo- 
gist, museum technician, recreational 
land use planner, an artist, an art dealer, 
food production manager, copy editor, 
transportation planner, psychologist, so- 
cial worker, designer, childcare coun- 
selor and the usual number of housewive 

Further, six of these graduates have 
obtained their Ph.D.'s and at least five 
more are working toward their"s. Over 
half of this group have their Master's 
degrees — many of them in museum-re- 
lated fields including two in geology, 
two in anthropology, one each in re- 
source development, zoology, wildlife 
management, library science, botany, 
and two in biology. Even the professor 
of Political Science has setded in the pol- 
itics of natural resources development as 
his major professional interest. 

The Museum staff has long been as- 
sessing the Antioch students — both offi- 

cially and otherwise. As suspected, the 
co-ops have made a few assessments of 
their own and in late 1965 and the spring 
of '66 those who worked three or more 
months in the Antioch-Museum pro- 
gram were asked to put some of their 
opinions in writing. 

Of the 1 77 Antioch students employed 
as co-ops by the Museum, the survey 
reached 65, and of these 40 students re- 
sponded, providing thoughtful answers 
to the questions asked of them. 

On the question "Do you feel thai your 
experience at the Museum influenced your 
choice oj field oj concentration?" the alumni 
were evenly divided. A New Zealand 
scientific officer with a Ph.D. in Botany 
who had worked in the Zoology Depart- 
ment said, "Yes. It was important in de- 
termining my interest in biology and as the re- 
sult I majored in biology. K. P. Schmidt, at 
that time Chief Curator oj ^oology, also 
strongly advised studying outside the U.S.A. 
which later I did {one year graduate study in 
the .\etherlands) .''^ A professional librar- 
ian who had worked in the Museum 
Library agreed, 'Tm, in a way. I had 
already decided to become a librarian, but not 
necessarily a natural history librarian." So 
did a wildlife technical editor who had 
worked in the Geology Department. He 
wrote, "I'm. // was my first working expe- 
rience in the natural sciences. I was intrigued 
by the opportunities I discovered." Another 
alumnus, now in social work, found value 
in a negative aspect of the Museum work 
experience; his quote, "Yes. I had been 
contemplating Geology as a major and from 
this experience I decided against it. This was 
a blessing/or me and for the Field of Geology." 

The question "Was the Museum work 
experience helpful to you in establishing your 
vocational orientation.''" resulted in another 
even division of replies. 

A graduate student majoring in evolu- 
tionary biology who had worked in the 
Botany Department said, "// gave me an 
inkling of what taxonomy and paleobotany are 
all about; helped me to realize I liked field 
work, teaching better." A Ph.D. student in 
the history of science at Johns Hopkins 
University who had worked in the .An- 
thropology Department felt that, "// 
strengthened my desire for an academic life 
and I am definitely considering museum work 
after my degree." 

The next two quotes indicate that, al- 
thona;h a scientific institution, the Mu- 

seum's aid to vocational orientation is 
not restricted to scientists. ".\'ly chosen 
field is art. Contact with ethnological collec- 
tions increased my awareness of world art 
forms and increased my interest," said a can- 
didate for Master's degree in art educa- 
tion at N.Y.U. who had worked in the 
Anthropology Department. "Before op- 
ening my own art business, I worked for five 
years running Craft Cottage Industry in the 
Andes of Peru, Ecuador and Colombia. I also 
set up marketing corporations for Latin Amer- 
ican governments on a contract with the Alli- 
ance for Progress (State Department)," from 
an art dealer specializing in pre-Colum- 
bian-Peruvian art who had worked in 
the Department of Anthropology. 

In response to the question "Did the 
.Museum increase or decrease your interests in 
natural science?" eighty-five per cent of 
the alumni stated that their interest in 
natural science had been increased. 

.Antioch College has long known that 
both the job and living situation are val- 
uable educationally and personally, thus 
the question "Did living in Chicago and 
working at the .Museum contribute to your per- 
sonal maturity?" Ninety per cent of those 
responding said it had. One former co- 
op, now a Ph.D. candidate in anthropol- 
ogy, who had worked in the Anthro- 
pology Department said, "/ seriously be- 
lieve so. At the .Museum I was given responsi- 
bility and then recognition when I succeeded. It 
was here I gained much of the respect I have for 
the labors of the field in which I am now en- 
gaged." A graduate student in evolu- 
tionary biology who had worked in the 
Botany Department felt he had "Learned 
to live in apartment, shop in big city, learned 
what streets were safe, and when, learned the 
problems of transition neighborhoods by par- 
ticipating in Quaker work camps. Learned to 
be part of the nine-to-five crowds." A New 
York artist-teacher who had worked in 
the Museum Library, "enjoyed seeing the 
differences and similarities of another large 
city. The isolation of being in that vast city 
and vast museum built up my self-reliance." 

And lest you begin to feel that you are 
reading "Pollyanna Goes to Antioch," 
there is this bit of leavening ". . . I feel 
Chicago is a dreadful city and little would be 
lost if Lake Michigan moved in and covered 
it up — slums, corruption, miserable climate 
and all," from the New Zealand scien- 
tific officer. 

Most Antioch students have about six 

different employers during their under- 
graduate years, providing a wide field 
for comparison. To the question requir- 
ing the alunmi to evaluate the Museum 
work experience in comparison to others, 
seventy-eight per cent found it a helpful 
one for a variety of personal and profes- 
sional reasons, such as contact with 
prominent scientists, experience in field 
of academic interests, familiarity with 
valuable collections, exposure to schol- 
arly atmosphere. The question, "Was 
there anything about the Museum work expe- 
rience that was particularly helpful to you as 
contrasted with other work experiences?" drew 
responses citing some less obvious Mu- 
seum values. Some are "Long lunch hour 
(one hour) so I could pursue additional inter- 
ests in the museum," and "Mainly I think, 
the lasting influence has been the fine, human 
qualities of the people there. There was an 
obvious respect for one another not always 
found in other places," and "Museum per- 
sonnel savour their work rather than endure it. 
Also, I felt my work was important, not rou- 
tine, as other jobs had been." 

A second work-evaluation question 
"What did you like most, and least, about 
your Museum work?" affords greater in- 
sight into the alumni's reactions. Many 
alumni only indicated what they liked 
most, some responded plurally as to their 
likes and dislikes, and three happily said 
that they liked everything ! 

Nineteen alumni (nearly half), indi- 
cated that they most liked the people 
with whom they were associated, men- 
tioning particularly their friendliness and 
dedication. The work itself and the 
■'atmosphere" were the next most pop- 
ular categories. 

Interestingly enough, the work itself 
was high on the lists of both least-liked 
and most-liked aspects of the Museum 
job. The only other "dislike" attaining 
a measure of unanimity was low pay. 
(A pay raise effective Oct. 1, 1965 has 
since been favorably received.) Other 
leaders among the least-liked were typ- 
ing, working conditions, "hostile attitude 
of some," prejudice against females on 
trips, dusting storerooms, pasting photo- 
graphs, lack of challenge, and feeding 

Only 1 8% of those surveyed have ha'd 
any contact with the Museum since 
their co-op student days — one joined 
{Continued on Page 7) 


I I ODAY OUR TECHNOLOGY enables us to reach from Earth 
I I into the Solar System and beyond so that planets, satel- 
U lites and other extraterrestrial bodies are coming under 
closer scrutiny than ever before. In these efforts special in- 
terest centers on the "terrestrial" or earth-like planets, Mer- 
cury, Venus, Earth and Mars, here given in order of increas- 
ing distance from the Sun. Although we will deal with \'enus 
in this article, it is useful to consider briefly the more general 

subject of the "planetology" of the terrestrial planets as a 

Among the terrestrial planets, Mercury and Mars are the 
smallest, with diameters less than twice that of our Moon. 
By contrast, Venus is only a little smaller than Earth and is 
of practically the same density, so that it seems safe to infer 
that these two sister planets are made of approximately the 
same types of materials. All the terrestrial planets are be- 

lieved to be composed of rock, although their varying sizes 
and densities indicate that the dominant type of rock may 
vary from planet to planet. 

Also, because of their different sizes and distances from 
the Sun, the terrestrial planets represent a series of radically 
different environments with respect to the chemical and phys- 
ical nature of their surfaces and atmospheres. They are thus 
valuable subjects for studies in comparative planetology. Such 



study may reward us with much information about the origin 
and history of the Solar System and oiu- own Earth, and per- 
haps of the development of life itself. From the nature of 
these problems, we know that the processes involved depend 
crucially on the chemical constitution of the environment and 
more particularly on the chemical behavior, or reactivity, of 
planetary materials. By this we mean whether or not the 
prevailing temperature and pressure conditions will give rise 


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Photograph oj Venus-Regulus conjunction taken by pete d. turner of Boulder, Colorado. 


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to chemical compounds similar to those formed on the Earth 
or whether quite different substances arc to be expected. 

To answer these questions we must first consider the type 
of chemical reaction most fundamental to planetary studies — 
the reaction which may occur between atmospheric gases and 
surface rocks. It is this type of reaction which governs not 
only the kind of atmosphere which can develop, but also the 
detailed characteristics of the surface. VVe know that the 
minerals of rocks contain many gases in chemical combina- 
tion and that these gases are released when the rocks are 
heated, and absorbed when they are cooled. The more sig- 
nificant of these reactions involve oxygen, water and carbon 
dioxide since these gases play important roles in mineral and 
organic processes including the metabolism of living things. 
These reactions may be represented : 

(1) oxidized rock< — »unoxidized rock +gaseous oxygen 

(2) hydrated rock < — » dehydrated rock -\- water 

(3) carbonated rock< — 'decarbonated rock +carbon dioxide. 
The reversed arrows are used to indicate that these reac- 
tions may proceed either to the right or to the left. It is well 
known that all these reactions proceed to the right (— ») more 
strongly as the temperature is increased. However, for each 
reaction a certain minimum temperature is required before 
the reaction can take place at all, either to the right or the left. 

If, for example, we consider a cold planet such as Mars, 
we know from astronomical measurements that the average 
surface temperature is so low that all three types of reaction 
should be practically "frozen'" on the surface. However, 
since planetary temperatures should increase rapidly with 
depth it is possible that the reactions are effective deep within 
Mars" interior, and that the observed atmospheric gases of 
this planet are the result of leakage from this hotter region. 

In general, the average temperature of Earth's surface is 
also too low for these reactions to be very effective. One re- 
sult is that green plants produce oxygen by photosynthesis 
much faster than it can be absorbed by rocks (according to 
reaction 1). This, of course, is fortunate for air-breathing 
animals. It is to be expected that as in the case of Mars, 
other atmospheric and surface substances, such as carbon 
dioxide and water, have their source in the deep interior of 
our planet where the temperature is high enough to drive the 
reactions to the right. We must bear in mind that for car- 
bon dioxide the relationship is apt to be very complex, since 
this gas is used by plants in making food for themselves. 
The Origin of the Venusian Atmosphere 

During the last decade we have learned a great deal from 
the analysis of light and radio waves emitted by a planet or 
reflected from its atmosphere or surface. Some of this critical 
information was obtained from the space probe Mariner II. 
One of the most important things we have learned from these 
sources is that Venus is quite hot, perhaps as hot as 800° F. 
on the average. This is of particular importance to planetary 
studies because of its profound effect on the chemical reac- 
tions, as we have already discussed. 

The high temperatures of Venus are accompanied by an 
atmosphere peculiar in the extreme by our standards. For 
example, oxygen comprises 21 percent by volume of Earth"s 
atmosphere, whereas on \'enus this constituent occurs in 

such extremely minute quantities that actually it never has 
been detected at all. Water, too, is scarce on Venus: one 
would expect that the high temperatures would boil away 
oceans of water into the atmosphere, and yet barely a trace 
has been observed there by use of the most sensitive instru- 
ments. By contrast to the apparent extreme scarcity of oxy- 
gen and water, carbon dioxide is perhaps 100,000 times more 
abundant in \'enus" atmosphere than in ours. The explana- 
tion for these chemical peculiarities can be provided by ex- 
perimental and theoretical chemistry. 

We have already seen that chemical reactions between 
rocks and atmosphere not only require a minimum tempera- 
ture to be effective, but also that these reactions run to the 
right faster with increasing temperature so that the higher the 
temperature, the more gases are liberated into the atmos- 
phere. Chemistry tells us that with Venus' high surface tem- 
perature, the mininuim threshold for reactivity should be 
exceeded for all the reactions, and that contrary to the case 
of Mars and Earth, we should expect these reactions to exert 
profound control over the atmospheric composition. Al- 
though we know that the high temperature will cause all 
three reactions to emit more gases into the atmosphere, we 
must be careful to differentiate between them. For example, 
although reactions 1 and 2 will liberate oxygen and water 
from the \enusian rocks faster than they do from the rocks 
of Mars and Earth, they still do so at a rate so low that they 
can produce only minute quantities of free oxygen and water. 
This is especially true of oxygen, and in order for significant 

Schematic drawing of Mariner II. Light and radio waves 
emitted or reflected by planets were measured on its 1962 
space probe. This information formed a basis for estimates 
of the average temperature on Venus. 

or even measmable quantities of this gas to be produced, 
\'enus would have to be several times as hot as it is! The 
real effect then of these reactions is actually to bring about 
the absorption of any oxgen or water which might be produced 
by other means, such as photosynthesis. Thus, the low ob- 
served value of these constituents in the atmosphere is actu- 
ally in good agreement with chemical theory. 

Considerations based on this theorv also inform us that 


reaction 3 should run to the right with great rapidity, and 
this again agrees with the great abundance of observed car- 
bon dioxide in the atmosphere of this planet. When similar 
calculations are applied to countless other chemical com- 
pounds, in general they tell us that the high temperatures tend 
to favor the simpler molecules. They also tell us that in gen- 
eral, conditions on a hot planet such as Venus should be 
simpler than on cooler bodies where more complex substances 
can form and persist. Of course, life as we know it depends 
on these complex substances, so that from almost any stand- 
point, living creatures should find Venus hostile to their origin 
and even to their survival. 
The Nature of the Venusian Surface 

We may also ask what effect the high temperatures will 
have on the character of the Venusian surface and what rocks 
and minerals we are likely to find there. First, we may say 
that the similarity of the size and density of Venus and Earth 
favors the idea that these planets have had internal histories 
at least roughly similar. This means that we should expect 
mountainous zones on Venus similar in horizontal extent to 
those on Earth. Some recent radio-telescopic observations 
seem to confirm this idea. However, some important modi- 
fications may affect the Venusian mountains as a consequence 
of the higher surface and crustal temperatures. Curious as it 
may seem, even solid rocks are weakened by heat; and weak 
rocks could not be expected to stand very high as mountains, 
unless the elevating forces were exceptionally strong. There- 
fore, it seems likely that the \'enusian mountains might be 
somewhat less impressive than our own in terms of height, 
although they may occupy fully as much area. 

Because of the similarity of scale, \"enus should also have 
a crust of at least roughly the same composition, since this 
feature is derived by differentiation of deep-seated material. 
The most abundant mineral of our own crustal rocks is feld- 
spar, and we should expect the same of Venus, so that basalt 
and granite, the familiar terrestrial rocks, should also bulk 
large on X'enus. But we cannot carry this analogy too far, 
since we know that the higher temperatures will prevent the 
formation of any mineral which contains too many dissolved 
gases. This would be especially true of such minerals as clays, 
which contain water and which make up much of Earth's 
soils and sediments. It may also be true of certain mica and 
hornblende-bearing rocks which are formed at high tempera- 
tures on Earth, for these also have water in them. 

The picture that emerges of the Venus surface is certainly 
a ijlcak one in many respects: rather subdued mountains or 
hills, and plains unrelieved by bodies of water or vegetation, 
probably swept by continuous dust storms which agitate the 
heavy dry atmosphere of noxious gases. Yet it is also possible 
that some curious and interesting sights might be revealed to 
a close observer. For example, in such an environment we 
might observe minerals grow before our very eyes or dissolve 
just as rapidly in the atmospheric gases. Conditions might 
also favor the deposition of valuable ores directly on the sur- 
face, rather than deep in the crust as on Earth, so that the 
\'cnusian surface might be of enormous technologic and eco- 
nomic interest. .Answers to these and other speculations are 
eagerly expected from future probes of this planet. 

Sti)o«»ft^ otfei. . . (continued from page 3) 
the Southwest Archaeological Expedition in 1957 and 1958, 
one married a staff member, and another has been on the 
Museum staff for nine years. 

The final question in the survey was " What advice would 
you give the Aiuseum, the school and current students regarding the 
Museum program? How can it be improved?''' The alumni gave 
advice with gusto and good sense. Much of it is pertinent 
only to those engaged in the work experience program, but 
the following may be taken as good advice not only to the 
co-op but to anyone in any job. "From my experience there and 
that of others I have talked to, initial assignments are very routine, 
and could become tedious if the student allows. The more complex and 
interesting tasks are given when the co-op shows by performance and 
attitude that he is ready to accept them. This is good, but may be 
disconcerting to the beginner who expects to jump in at the top," from 
an elementary school teacher who worked in the Library. 

As all good questionnaires should, this one provoked a de- 
sire on the part of many to express "just one moie thing." 
For example, this from a museum exhibits technician who 
worked in the Geology Department, '^^ If the Field Atuseum has 
not yet opened its various art departments and preparation labs {model 
making, taxidermy, habitat group construction) to students, then a vast 
source of wealth is remaining untapped in the area of co-op training, 
for there is so much there to indicate a direction to follow toward one's 
career. Careers are there that one could never imagine except by lour- 
ing the laboratory labyrinth. I hope that the atmosphere prevails 
yet, for to me the epitome of ''Museum" resides in Chicago." 

A concluding quotation reflects the sometimes surpris- 
ing individuality typical of both the .Antioch students and the 
Museum personnel in their approaches to jobs, life, and one 
another. Perhaps it is this very individuality which has made 
the program a success. 

'^ I hope I may be pardoned a final personal note. I had spent World 
War II in a camp for conscientious objectors and went directly from 
the camp to the .Museum. I was not sent to the Museum by Antioch 
and perhaps was not officially a co-op student. I went to the .Mu- 
seum at Mr. Dawson's suggestion but without an official letter of 
introduction. I was hired by a retired military man, a colonel, I be- 
lieve. He questioned me briefly about my status as a conscientious 
objector, cautioned me about the possibility of discrimination on the 
part of other employees, and hired me without ado. His willingness 
to hire me at a time when I needed the .Museum more than the .Museum 
needed me was broadminded and generous on his part, and I have 
always been grateful for it." 

Specifically, this survey indicates that the Field Museum 
has contributed significantly to the preparation of at least 14 
.•\ntioch alumni who are now professionally engaged in work 
related to that done at the Museum, and at least seven others 
still in graduate school preparing for related work. 

The Museum intensified most of the students' interest in 
natural history and has helped them in important decisions 
concerning their futures. By their own admission, working 
at the Museum effected subtle changes in the personalities 
and thinking of several dozen now staid and mature .'Antioch 
alumni. In return, the .Antioch co-ops have provided a fillip 
of youth — occasionally deflating, often exhilarating, and al- 
ways refreshing to the Museum staff. 

J.ANUART Page 7 

picture makingf 
by Apes 
and its 

by A. L. Rand 

Chief Curator, Zoology 

The picture making ability of chimpanzees first received recognition in 1957 when 
Betsy and Congo had a two-chimp exhibit at the Institute of Contemporary Art in 
London. In the same year, the work of Zippy was exhibited in the Senate House 
Museum, Kingston, New York. Eight paintings by these chimps are now on exhibit 
here at Field Museum. The paintings, the gift of the late Mrs. Emily Crane Chad- 
bourne, are now a part of the study collection of the Zoology Department, as an 
illustration of the behavior of great apes in a field considered restricted to man. 

Congo, an experimental animal studied by Mr. Desmond Morris of London, was 
a television personality who made 384 pictures between 1956 and 1959 when he 
was two to four years old. Much of his color work was done with a brush. At his 
London show, some pictures sold well at inflated prices, after which the others were 
withdrawn from the market and filed for documentation and study. Much of what 
we know about the biology of chimpanzee art comes from Morris' studies at the 
London Zoo. His book. The Biology of Art, deals with these studies. 

Betsy of Baltimore, also a zoo animal and television personality, is best known for 
her finger paintings, the sale of which helped fill the coffers of the Baltimore Zoo. 
Zippy is a less well-known figure. She worked in a Washington department store 
painting pictures for sale, some of which Mrs. Chadbourne purchased. 

It could be argued that this material belongs to the study of art, or that since it 
throws light on certain aspects of the innate behavior of man, it belongs in anthro- 
pology. True, it can be used in either of these. But here, we view it in the wider 
context of the whole evolutional process, making it properly zoological material. 

One must accept that real and important ideas can emerge from the study of this 
ape picture making. Because it is so easy to burlesque picture making by non-hiuiian 
primates, the main point may be inissed — that though these ape artists offer an obvi- 
ous opportunity to deflate some pomposities of the art world, their picture making 
is not at all a zoological joke. It takes a discerning eye and a receptive mind to see 
them for what they are: documents and records of a biological approach to art. 

The show in London was opened by the noted British biologist. Sir Julian Huxley, 
who maintained that the pictures by Congo and Betsy showed that chimpanzees had 
artistic potential. By inference, our ape-like ancestors had this primitive artistic 
potential to which man has added his unique capacity for symbol making. 

Morris shows that the chimp-painted pictures have basic artistic qualities. 
They show composition control, calligraphic development, and aesthetic varia- 
tion. These characteristics appear only at a minimal level, it is true, but they are 
there, the basic fundamentals of aesthetic creativity. 

From the point of view of evolutionary studies in biology, the intricacies of art 
need not concern us beyond establishing, as Morris has done, that the aesthetic 
potential of Homo sapiens has its roots in a similar open-pattern instinct of a pre- 
human ancestor, and that traces of it can be fovmd in present-day sub-human spe- 
cies. (.An open-pattern instinct is one which is susceptible to modification by expe- 
rience and in some forms is capable of being codified into traditional behavior. A 
closed-pattern instinct is one not modifiable by experience.) 

The investigation into animal behavior in terms of open and closed instinctive 
patterns is in its infancy. It is a study that promises a much richer understanding 
of animal behavior and its evolution, from lowest to highest forms. 


Museum open 9 a.m. until 4p.m. weekdays, 
until 5 p.m. weekends. 

through February 28 Winter Journey : 
Who's Who in the Prehistoric Zoo 
A self-guided tour of the prehistoric 

animals hall; direction sheets available 

at the Information Desk and at both 


January 1-31 Exhibit: 

Paintings by Chimpanzees 

An exhibit of eight paintings by three 
chimpanzees, and photos of the animals 
at work. In Stanley Field Hall. 

January 1 5 Movie : Sponsored by Ill- 
inois .-Audubon Society 

Gone With The Wilderness 
Karl Maslowski's film features a mink 
and a moth. In James Simpson Theatre 
at 2:30 p.m. 


Chicago Shell Club 

January 8 at 2 p.m. 
Chicago Nature Camera Club 

January 10 at 7:45 p.m. 

February 5 at 2:30 p.m. 
Illinois Orchid Society 

January 15 at 2 p.m. 

This month'' s cover shows Duncan Foley, an 
Antioch College '''co-op,^^ working among the 
hundreds oj cases oj mineral specimens in our 
Department oJ Geology. 



CHICAGO. ILLINOIS 60605 AC. 312, 922-9410 

E. Leland H'ehher, Director 


Edward G. Nash, Managing Editor 
Bea Paul, Associate Editor, graphics 



Volume 38, Number 2 February, 1967 



I am very pleased to tell you about an unusual opportunity being offered to mem- 
bers of Field Museum - a tour of Guatemala, a land spectacular in its beauty and diversity. 
As the site of many Field Museum expeditions and the subject of many of our publications, 
Guatemala is a logical first destination for a planned series of Field Musevim tours. 

One of the greatest strengths of the Museum is its members. People join Field 
Museum because they are interested in the natural sciences, in our research and exhibit 
programs - interested in the world around them. It was with this in mind that our Guate- 
mala tour was planned, for it will be something quite different from an ordinary tour. 

It has been carefully planned, not just to skim the surface, but to achieve an 
understanding of the flora and archaeology of Guatemala and a personal acquaintance 
with its people. Members of the Museum staff will participate in the tour adding their 
knowledge of the area to the value of the experience. Of particular interest will be 
visits in the homes and gardens of leading Guatemalans. 

The group will be limited to 60 persons, divided into two sections of 30 each. 
Transportation in Guatemala will be in limousines driven by English-speaking chauffeur- 
guides, with no more than four passengers to a limousine. 

The cost of the trip is $1,260 per person, of which $^+00 is a tax deductible 
contribution to Field Museum. 

One section of the tour will be led by Phil Clark, our Public Relations Covuasel, 
who has led many garden tours of Guatemala and Mexico and has an intimate knowledge of 


Donald Collier 

Antonio Molina 

Malcolm Collier 

Phil Clark 

the area. Mr. Clark will also act as a tour botanist. The leader and botanist for the 
other section will be Dr. Antonio Molina of Honduras, a Field Associate of the Museum's 
Department of Botany, who has worked for many years in Central America. The tour 
anthropologists will be Dr. Malcolm Collier and Dr. Donald Collier, Chief Curator of 
Anthropology who is a specialist in Central and South American anthropology. 

I hope that many of you will take this opportunity to join our staff members and 
me in visiting Guatemala, the locale of one of our important overseas field programs 
in one of the most beautiful areas in the Western Hemisphere. In the next few pages, we 
present the itinerary of the tour day by day. Later on in this issue there is an appre- 
ciation of Guatemala by Dr. Louis Williams, Chief Curator of Botany, and head of Field 
Museum's Flora of Guatemala project, one of our most important scientific programs. 
All of us hope that tours like this will lead, in future years, to an ever- 
increasing involvement of the members in the life and work of Field Museum. 


E. Leland Webber, Director 


Guatemala is the beautiful — and the unexpected. Green and blue 
parrots, not drab crows, raid cornfields. Tropical jungle and tem- 
perate pine forests are within minutes of each other. Ornate 
baroque stands side-by-side with sleekly modern architecture. The 
ruins of an ancient and proud culture sit in the jungle silence as 
they have for centuries. On these pages, Phil Clark traces day by 
day Field Museum's Guatemalan Tour, designed so that you may 
come to know the flora, the people, the civilization of Guatemala. 

Busy scene in Guatemala City. 

1 Friday, October 27— you leave 
from O'Hare Field, taking Delta 
Airlines to New Orleans and 
Pan American to Guatemala City. 
The temperature will be spring-like 
but it won't take you long to know 
you are in the tropics: the huge 
orange flowers of the tulip trees 
and the massed magenta of bou- 
gainvillea will tell you. Your hotel, 
the new Ritz Continental, is in the 
center of the capital. Dinner will 
be in the hotel's skyroom with a 
sweeping view of the National 
Palace Square and the mountain- 
circled city. After dinner, a talk 
on tropical fruits by Dr. Antonio 
Molina, tour botanist. 

' Midst flowering azaleas, don Craig Hodgsdon welcomes tour members in patio garden. 

An ancient sculpture at the Museum oj Ar- 
chaeology and Ethnology in Guatemala City, 

2 Saturday, October 28— This 
morning you visit the Muse- 
um of Archaeology and Eth- 
nology and the partially excavated 
ruins of Kaminaljuyu, a great cere- 
monial center of the highland 
Maya, the foundations of which 
were laid before 500 B.C. After 
lunch, a call at the home of don 
Mariano Pacheco, dean of Guate- 
malan horticulturists, whose patio 
is a miniature botanical garden of 
native plants. Later, a visit to the 
National Palace, built in the grand 
style of hispanic houses of state, 
containing many nationally cre- 
ated art works. A pause in a 
splendid Spanish colonial church, 
cocktails with a plantation owner 
in his townhouse, and, in the eve- 
ning, a discussion of the ancient 
and modern Maya with tour an- 
thropologists Donald and Mal- 
colm Collier. 

3 Sunday, October 29 — This morning you meet Jose Yurrita, the son of the planter who designed and built 
Yurrita Church, as thanksgiving for the miraculous rescue of his family after having been buried for three days 
under volcanic debris. You visit the Church, a strange blend of gothic and hispanic styles. During the after- 
noon, you visit four private homes and gardens, each one quite different from the others. The first is a gem-like 
patio garden in the Spanish colonial style; another belongs to the Republic's most daring architect; the third com- 
bines traditional Spanish with modern informal landscaping and at the fourth you meet many of Guatemala City's 
leading citizens at a party in a palatial, traditional home surrounded by sweeping gardens. 


Monday, October 30 — You leave for Antigua — 
the capital of Spanish colonial Central America. 
Founded in 1543, Antigua was destroyed by 
earthquakes in 1773. After lunch you explore 
this city that time forgot. Here are the ruins 
of some of the 16th Century's most monu- 
mental churches — Nuestra Senora de la Merced, 
San Francisco and others — the Palace of the Cap- 
tains General, and one of the first universities in 
the Americas, San Carlos, where a stunning col- 
lection of colonial sculpture and painting is dis- 
4 played. After dinner, a talk by Dr. Wilson 
Popenoe, a noted authority on tropical horti- 
culture, on the Spanish colonial garden. 

Founded in 167S, San Carlos University still stands in Antigua. 

Tuesday, October 31 — You take 
an excursion, with picnic lunch, 
into the tropical lowlands, to visit 
the coffee plantation of Hugh 
Craggs, a progressive farmer who 
tells you how he has achieved the 
highest coffee yield in Central 
America and demonstrates the 

5 processing of coffee. His 
handsomely landscaped es- 
tate is also well known to or- 
chidists; many orchid hybrids have 
originated here for this and other 
plant breeding are hobbies of don 
Hugh. On your return trip to An- 
tigua, you stop to view the land- 
scaped waterfall of the Grutas de 
San Pedro Martir. 

Royal palr-i. It,!,- thf c.ituu'.ce to the 
waterjail gardens oj San Pedro Martir. 

Wednesday, November 1 — During the morning, you see an All Saints 
Day procession at a nearby Indian village, with its strange combination 
of the Indian and the medieval spirits. For another colorful glimpse of 
Indian life, you tour the great Antigua market and visit some textile loom- 

6ing shops. During the afternoon you visit several small patio gar- 
dens showing varying degrees of modernization of the old Spanish 
houses, including the completely authentic Casa Popenoe. 

Black beans are favorites among the many varieties sold in Antigua's 



Thursday, November 2 — Today you take an excursion to the great planta- 
tion-garden El Zapote, almost on the rim of the smoking volcano Fuego. 
The lady of this estate, Mrs. Carmen Pettersen, one of Guatemala's most 
enthusiastic gardeners, will show her gardens with their artificial lakes of water- 
lilies and give a talk on her exciting life in Guatemala. The plantation's main 
crops are the drug quinine and the spice cardamon. 

Volcan Fuego smokes above an ash-streaked moun- 
tainside, seen Jrom El Z'^pote plantation-garden. 


8 Friday, Novembers — Today you enter the real In- 
dian Guatemala in the highlands. You pass 
through Indian villages and stop at the colorful 
market of Patzun and at the Mayan ruins of Iximche, 
where temples and pyramids, now silently framing Vol- 
can Fuego, were busy Indian centers when the Span- 
iards came. Finally, you reach magnificent Lake Atit- 
lan, a volcano-circled oval of brilliant azure, its waters 
deep and pure. After settling in your cottage at the 
garden hotel, Casa Contenta, you visit the nearby mar- 
ket town of Solola, where the men wear gray woolen 
coats embroidered with stylized black bats, and plaid 
skirts over striped pajama-like trousers. In the evening, 
a dance, with marimba band. 

A busy cniin hrjuie liir Spaniards came, temples at Iximche now :,tand deserted. 

Saturday, November 4 — A launch takes you across Lake Atitlan to Santiago Atitlan, a 
village of Tzutuhil-speaking Indians. The women wear bright red, tightly-wrapped skirts, 
white huipiles and "halo" headdresses made by winding red ribbon around their heads; 

men wear white shirts, red sashes and short white trousers embroidered with butterflies. During the afternoon, swimming 

in Lake Atitlan and a botanical hike along a nearby river are scheduled. 


^ ^^ Sunday, November 5 — Market day at Chichicastenango, 
I I 1 1 7 corkscrew miles up the mountain through heavy pine 
A\^ forests. When you reach this mountain-top town, you 
know that here is one of the last strongholds of the Indian in the 
Americas — the very street mood suggests another, different culture. 
At Santo Tomas church, clouds of black "pom"smoke rise heaven- 
ward from the stairs up which worshippers climb a step at a time. 
They chant prayers in Maya as did their ancestors in the temples. 
Inside the church is aglow with candles, and squatting Indians 
chant, as they sprinkle flower petals on the floor. Dinner at the 
hotel, the charming Spanish colonial Mayan Inn. 

Hand-loomed textiles are offered by girls oj Santiago Atitlan 

n Monday, November 6 — A hike up the mountain Pas 
qual Abaj through cornfields and pine-oak forest 
brings you to the black stone idol of the god Tur- 
kaj, still worshipped in the area. Freshly cut flowers 
and perhaps animal offerings lie before him and 
smoke and incense still rise before three Maya 
crosses. On the way back to Chichicastenango, 
you stop at the mask-maker to examine 
hand-carved wooden masks of animals 
and human faces and to watch a Con- 
quest dance. At tea, guide Oscar 
Martinez gives a talk on the In- 
dians of Chichicastenango. 


Tikal's great temples loom above 
the surrounding rainforest. 


Tuesday, November 7 — An early start for Quezaltenango, 55 miles to the 
north, with a stop at the market town of Totonicapan, famous for its 
colorful woolen blankets. Amazing terraces make patchwork of the steep 
mountainsides on which corn and wheat are grown. Black sheep are tended by shepherds wearing a sort of Indian kilt in 
brown and black checks. In Quezaltenango, you visit an hacienda-style home with an impressive library and an unusual 
columnar Guatemalan holly tree. The recently built Bonifaz, our hotel for the night, is in the Spanish Revival style. 

^ ^^ Wednesday, Novembers — The trip back to Guatemala City is via the Pacific road, which passes through 
I ^ lowland jungles. Growing at the roadside are purple sobralia orchids, orchid cacti, tree ferns, Spanish 
At ^J cedar, balsa, and teak trees and fields of pineapple, sugar cane. There are plantations of cacao, banana 
and coffee. Santa Maria volcano is framed by palms. You stop for a conducted tour of a tropical agriculture 
station where chocolate, lemon grass, annatto dye, rubber, black pepper and vanilla orchids are grown. Today's 
trip, one hundred and fifty miles, is the longest day's driving on the tour, through mostly tropical country. 

gm ^ Thursday, November 9 — An early morning plane 
I xl across rainforest to Tikal, where pyramids and 

Ji iB temples soar over the jungle. Artifacts as old 
as 500 B.C. have been found here. This was the largest 
Maya city of the Classic Period, uncovered and partly 
reassembled by University of Pennsylvania archaeolo- 
gists in recent years. The period of most active build- 
ing was 300-700 A.D. The city, probably a religious 
and ceremonial center, was mysteriously abandoned 
about 869 A.D. Its magnificent stelae, pyramids and 
palaces were left to the jungle where amid monkeys 
and exotic birds it moldered until recent times. You 
will stay at the simple Jungle Inn, where, after dinner. 
Dr. Collier will talk about the restoration of the ancient 
city. The sight of the Temple of the Jaguar in the moon- 
lit jungle is an unforgettable moment. 

Guatemala' s national flower, the white 
nun orchid, Lycaste virginalis alba. 

Smoke rises from censors swung on steps oj Santo Tomas Church in Chichicastenango. 


afl H Friday, November 
1 ^ JO— A further look 
A V^ at the ruins of Tikal, 
and after lunch, the return to 
Guatemala City. 

Saturday, November 7/— In the morning, you tour Guatemala City market. In the afternoon, you are on your own. 
This evening both groups reunite for dinner and a farewell party and program at El Patio restaurant. 


Sunday, November 12— The return to Chicago. 


an appreciation 
by Louis 0. Williams, Chief Curator, Botany 

I CONSIDER GUATEMALA inv second homeland. It contains 
more things of interest, for those whose curiosity is not bounded 
by everyday affairs, than any equal area that I know. 

Even though I have been asked to write about Guatemala's 
plants, I should be derelict in my duty if I did not tell you to 
see, observe and talk to the Guatemalan people. A friendlier 
people are to be found nowhere, and more interesting ones 
are hard to imagine. One must remember that the civiliza- 
tion from which they come is old. It was good and they are 
justly proud of it and you will be deeply respectful of it too, 
I am sure, when you see the ruins that remain from a great 
epoch in their history. 

During your days in Guatemala you will see some splen- 
did mountain landscapes, dominated always by volcanoes 
and volcanic lands. Please notice Santa Maria volcano when 

you go to Quezaltenango; it is 
the most symmetrical cone I 
have seen ans'where. 

It will almost certainly be a 
day long remembered when you 
first look down on Lake AtidSn, 
— far below and the bluest of 
blue. Look at the shoreline and 
emba)ments and count the inany 
gleaming white villages. The 
volcanoes circling the lake seem 
to be sentinels standing guard. 
One of your days at the lake will be market day at nearby 
Solola. Perhaps there are better Indian markets in Guate- 
mala, but this is especially fine for the many colorfully dressed 
Indians who come in from the surrounding area. Relatively 
few tourists visit Solola, for it is somewhat off the beaten track. 
The western highlands, "Los Altos," are especially noted 
for the textiles that are woven there. Vou will be besieged by 
vendors of blankets, tablecloths, ties, dress material — all the 
things that it is possible to weave by hand loom. Selecting 
judiciously, you can buy some very good things at reason- 
able prices. 

Guatemala is not very big, but its flora was blessed by a 
benevolent creator. From the sea to the top of the highest 
volcano, the distance is very small. But the distance in cli- 
mate and plant habitats is immense. You will especially 
notice the difference as you go quickly from Quezaltenango 
down to the coastal plain. Habitat and climate change is 
greater in those few minutes than that from Chicago to Miami. 
If you go out everyday from Chicago into the uncultivated 

areas still remaining within 100 miles and if you are a careful 
and critical observer, you might find two thousand kinds of 
wild plants during a whole season. An observer would find 
that number in western Guatemala in only a few days. In 
all the United States, there are about 15,000 native flowering 
plants. I don't know how many there are in tiny Guatemala, 
for its flora is still relatively unknown, but probably there are 
1 0,000. The Flora of Guatemala now contains 2,500 pages and 
when completed will be a work of about 4,000 pages. This 
indicates the great variety of plants in this small area. 

You shall see several radically different kinds of plant 
associations in Guatemala: those in the hot, often dry. Pacific 
coastal plain; the rain forests of Tikal; and the subalpine 
zone of the high mountains, where frost is a common oc- 
currence in winter months, and where some of the fin- 
est coniferous forests remaining on 
the continent grow. A rare but out- 
standing conifer here is Abies guate- 
malensis, the Guatemalan fir locally 
called pinabete. I think that this is 
the largest fir in the world. Seen 
from a distance it is distinctive, for 
in the forest it appears black. Dr. 
Antonio Molina, who will be with 
you, is a specialist on the kinds of 
Central American conifers and will 
identify the plants for you. 

You will go through deciduous forests of several kinds as 
you travel. These range from the relatively dry Pacific to the 
temperate highlands and the wetter region of Tikal. Oaks 
are common most everywhere, except at the lower elevations, 
but these trees are not all oaks! When you have a chance, 
walk into the woods and observe the trees; you will find most 
are complete, if attractive, strangers, even the oaks. 

There is one very obvious difference between broadleaf 
forests in the tropics and northern regions. In this country 
you may find a hillside covered with one kind of maple or 
oak, the population containing literally thousands or even 
hundreds of thousands of the same species of tree. In Guate- 
mala, this is not so. It will be a poor broadleaf forest in 
Guatemala where Dr. Molina cannot point out twenty or 
thirty kinds of trees in a few minutes' walk. 

It will be worth your while to go first into a highland for- 
est and then at Tikal to see the kinds of trees that grow in the 
lowlands. Mostly they will be quite different. 

Trees are not the only kinds of plants that you will see in 
abundance. You will be in Guatemala as the wet season is 
ending. This is the period when you will find the greatest 
number of plants in flower. 

In the western highlands it is the rule rather than the 
exception to find several kinds of Salvia in bloom. There 
are purples, blues and reds, herbs and shrubs, inconspicuous 
and flamboyant ones. 

You will also find Compositae (aster family) everywhere at 
this time. Blue ageratums overflow cornfields, and the woods 
and open hillsides are pink and yellow and white and brown 
with daisies and dahlias, growing as trees or as low annuals. 

Orchids and bromeliads are fovmd in all the areas that 

you will visit. These arc both interesting. Most are epi- 
phytes, growing on trees but taking nothing from them. Epi- 
phytism is, in part, an adaptation to get away from the com- 
petition at ground level and to get up into the sun. There 
also are orchids growing on the ground, often in great abim- 
dance. The road from Quezaltenango down to the coastal 
plain passes through a canyon where Sobralia macrantha covers 
the slopes. This species produces the largest flower of Guate- 
mala's over 500 kinds of orchids. I hope that you will see it, 
for although the lavender flower lasts a day at most, it is a 
sight not to be forgotten. 

Naturally, in a country so rich in wild plants, the gardens 
are colorful almost beyond imagining. Not only are the gar- 
dens given an exotic touch by the many plants brought in 
from the whole tropical world but numerous Guatemalan 
wild plants are utilized. Phil Clark, who will be one of the 
plant specialists with the tour, and who has for many years 
been the garden editor of a Mexican newspaper, will tell you 
in which countries the plants originated and also tell you some- 
thing of the Spanish principles of garden design typified by 
most of the gardens, either modern or traditional. 

You will see gardens in a variety of climatic situations 
which will further widen their styles and plant materials. 
Gardens will go all the way from a cool 7,700 feet at Quezal- 
tenango to a coffee plantation garden at 2,000 feet, with those 
in between at 5,000 feet in Antigua and Guatemala City. 
There will even be one huge garden estate on the side of 
Volcdn de Fuego. 

Man lives from plants in Guatemala just as he does else- 
where in the world. His agriculture is everywhere to be ob- 
served : some of it is rational and not destructive of the land, 
but much that you will see is wasteful of the non-renewable 
resource which is the land. A few miles before you reach 
Quezaltenango, you will observe wheat growing on hillsides 
so steep that terraces are necessary. 

When you stop along the Pan American Highway at a 
point where you can look north to the city of Totonicapin — 

you will view a checkerboard valley of cultivated fields. Most 
of the forests have been cut away and wheat and occasionally 
other crops are grown. When I first came to this region more 
than twenty years ago this whole valley was forested, like 
other still heavily forested areas which you will enjoy. 

Traveling from Guatemala City to the highlands and 
back again, then up northward to Tikal and back you will 
see some magnificent examples of tropical vegetation, ^'ou 
will also have brought forcefully to your attention man's de- 
pendence on plants. 


THE Great Auk, a large, black and white, flightless 
sea bird of the North Atlantic became extinct in 1844, 
thus making an unenviable record as being the first 
North American species to become extinct in historical times. 
It was followed into oblivion in 1875 by the Labrador Duck 
(one shot on Long Island), in April, 1904 by the Carolina 
Parakeet (last seen at Taylors Creek, Florida), and by the 
Passenger Pigeon (Martha, the last bird, died in the Cincin- 
nati Zoo in 1914). Any self-respecting museum with a col- 
lection of North American birds needs examples of all these. 
The Field Museum already had specimens of the last three, 
but not the Great Auk. 

The chances of ever getting a specimen seemed remote, 
since the Great Auk had already been extinct for about 50 
years when the Field Museum was founded in 1893, and 
there were only about 80 specimens in existence. Most of 
them were in European museums, with 9 in America, and 
museums do not lightly part with such material. Then, in 
1966, a colleague of ours, Mr. James Baillie of the Royal On- 
tario Museum, Toronto, wrote us that they had finally re- 
ceived a Great Auk for their Museum. It was formerly at 
\'assar College, and was the one Audubon purchased in Lon- 
don before 1836, and painted for his Birds of America. More 
important to us than the transfer of a Great Auk from Vassar 
to Toronto was Baillie's news that in Brussels the Jnstitut 
Royal des Sciences Naturelles wanted a representative series 
of North American birds, and might be willing to exchange 
one of their two Great Auks for it. 

We wrote Dr. A. Capart, Director of the Royal Institute, 
and found he was favorably inclined to such an exchange. 
We sent him a fairly complete series of strictly North Amer- 
ican birds, males, females and young, and received in ex- 
change the Great Auk. 

The first news of the arrival of our bird was a telephone 
call from Chicago customs that they had a penguin for us. 
An awful thought came to mind. Had they opened the pack- 
ing case and had it identified by a local bird watcher as a 
penguin, which a Great Auk superficially resembles? Was 
it, indeed, a penguin? A man was dispatched, posthaste. 
My fears were groundless. The case was intact, but the "Fac- 
ture pro forma" was in French and listed the contents as a Pin- 
gouirt. Of course ! In modern French texts auks are called 
pingouins and penguins are called manchots. As an early his- 
torian of the Great Auk wrote, it was known by different 
names in different places. Anatole France's Penguin Island 
was really inhabited by auks. In nineteenth century Eng- 
land, the name great auk vied with garefowl for popularity, 
the latter name based on the Icelandic geirfugl, the gaeiic 
gearjhul. The "geir" or "gare" of the name referring to the 
spear-like bill, while auk is an old English name for the re- 
lated razor bill. 

Our Great Auk, as we now call it, the only one in the 
L'nited States west of the Atlantic, is a magnificent bird. 

•Standing upright on its toes, it is about 21^ inches high. 


Zoology Chief Curato'i 
acquisition of mi 


The blade-like bill that gives the bird one of its names has 
curious grooves across the end and the nostril opens in a slit. 
The head has a big white patch in front of the eye, but is 
otherwise black, as are the sides of the neck and all the upper- 
parts except for narrow white tips to the inner flight feathers 
of the absurdly small wings. The underparts are white, which 
color ends in a sharp point on the upper neck. The tail is 
short and the three front toes fully webbed, as in other 
auk species. 

Evidently, it is an adult in summer plumage. As the 
sexes are externally alike we can't tell if it is male or female. 
Along with name and number, oiu- specimen has "De. E. 
de Selys" on the label. It is the specimen that Baron de Selys- 
Longchamps wrote of in "Ibis" in 1870. During his travels 
in Italy he saw four specimens in collections there, and also 
purchased the present specimen in 1840 in Turin, from a 
M. Verany with whom it had been left for sale, on commis- 
sion, by M. Verreaux. For a time, the Baron kept it at his 
place, Longchamps, near Warenne, Belgiinn, and later gave 
it to the Brussels Museum. Now it is in the Field Museum in 
Chicago. Its earliest history we can only deduce. No speci- 
mens of undoubted American origin are known and as the 
chief student of Great Auk history, Alfred Newton, wrote that 
most of the specimens extant are known to have come from 
Eldey Island, Iceland, in the period 1830-1844, we can as- 

sume this is the origin of our Great Auk. There is one minor 
corroborating detail. A superficial examination of the speci- 
men suggests that it has been skinned through a cut across 
the lower abdomen between the legs, in the same manner as 
Icelandic foxes and other specimens prepared by Icelanders. 
(Another method for auks was to make a slit under the right 
wing and stuff the skins with fine hay.) 

The value placed on Great Auk specimens in the 1800's, 
when people of substance were stocking their cabinets with 
show pieces, is best appreciated by realizing that a Great Auk 
was a gift worthy of a king. Baron de Selys-Longchamps, 
once the possessor of our specimen, wrote in 1870 that the 
Marquis de Breme, Grand Master of the Royal Household, 
gave his collection of birds, including a Great Auk, to King 
Victor Emmanuel who housed it in the Veneria Reale, Turin. 
At the request of the King of Portugal, Victor Emmanuel's 
son-in-law, also distinguished as a patron of Ornithology, 
this Great Auk was presented to the Museum in Lisbon in 
1867, where it is today. Later, the King of Italy was able 
to replace it in his collection with another, transferred to the 
Museo de Zoologia, Rome, in 1902, with the rest of the King's 
collection. As well as illustrating the value placed on such 
material, this illustrates how the private collections helped 
save early natural history material, preserving it until it 
flowed finally into public museums by donation or purchase. 


ustin L 
f the 78 

. Rand tells about Field Museum's recent, but long-awaited 
remaining specimens of the extinct Great Auk 

Taxidermist Carl Cotton gingerly unpacks 
Great Auk ajter its passage Jrom Brussels. 
Close examination revealed that the bird com- 
pleted the trip unscathed. At right, .Mrs. 
Herman Dunlap Smith, Associate in Birds 
and President of Field Aiuseuni's IVomen^s 
Board, who managed the difficult and time- 
consuming details of our exchange, and Em- 
met R. Blake, Curator of Birds, admire the 
Great Auk. 


This is a trend that is still going on. 

But some Great Auks did go through the market places. 
Priceless as they are to museums in showing the kinds of 
things that exist, commission merchants and traders did put 
a money value on them. A few examples of this may interest 
our readers. 

In the early 19th century, Great Auks changed hands for 
as little as £2 and as much as £15, with prices in other cur- 
rencies quoted as 200 francs, 50-200 florins and 20 thalers. 
In the late 1800's the prices had risen and two mentioned are 
600 dollars gold and £350. The latest I've seen, 1934, in a 
London sale: two Great Auks from the estate of a Mr. G. D. 
Rowley, one priced 480 guineas, the other, 500 guineas. Our 
exchange, a suite of North American birds, was not cheap. 
Much time and efTort would have gone into starting from 

Auks generally bear a striking likeness to penguins. One 
can say that Auks in northern oceans are the ecological equiv- 
alent of the penguins of southern oceans. However, all auks, 
even the Great Auks, have well-developed wing quills which 
penguins all lack. 

The Great Auk is the finest, most specialized, of the auks, 
notable for its flightlessness. Presumably it spent most of the 
year swimming, diving, and living on fish. It was tame and 
gullible. Fishermen were reported to have captured birds 
by holding out a fish to a swimming bird and enticing it to 
the edge of a boat so that it could be stunned with a blow of 
an oar. Birds captured alive were said to have survived for 
as long as 4 months and were fed, among other things, pota- 
toes mashed in milk. 

Only at nesting times did the birds come on land, on 

John James Audubon' s painting of Great Auks for his "Birds oj America." Audubon purchased a Great Auk specimen in London sometime before 1836 and 
used it in this painting. The bird later belonged to Vassar College and is now housed in the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto. 

scratch and building up such a collection. This is not the 
first such exchange that has been made. In 1860, a German 
naturalist acquired a Great Auk specimen in exchange for 
the skin of an Indian Tapir. 

There has been a great deal written about the Great Auk. 
Most of it is from the viewpoint of an antiquarian. No nat- 
uralist ever studied the living bird and what is known of its 
biology is collected from many scattered sources. The Great 
Auk, Alca impennis of Linnaeus, Pinguinus impennis of present- 
day ornithologists is classified in the Family Alcidae which 
also includes such well-known birds as razorbills, murres, 
dovekies, gullimots, murrelets, auklets, and puffins. All are 
heavy-bodied, web-footed, short-tailed, and rather short- 
winged sea birds which use their wings in underwater swim- 
ming. All hut the Great Auk fly well. 

rocky off-shore islands, to lay their single egg. In winter the 
black of the underside of the head was replaced by white 
feathers, and young birds were like the winter adults. 

The Great Auk was a victim of its specialization. Living 
most of its life in the water, where it swam with its wings as 
do its relatives, the Great Auk evolved flightless. Coming 
ashore only on isolated islands where there were no four- 
footed predators such as foxes, it developed a remarkable 
tameness and docility. No doubt it thrived in the mid-lati- 
tudes of the North Atlantic where the relatively shallow, fish- 
rich waters provided its food, until man arrived. Not modern 
man, but Stone Age man brought the first discordant note 
into its elysium. From the remains in stone-age middens of 
north-western Europe and Indian middens from New Bruns- 
wick to Cape Cod, we know that early man found it breeding 


on many off-shore islands. At least occasionally, the Great 
Auk visited Gibraltar where its bones were found in a cave 
along with those of Neanderthal man. There is evidence 
also, that it visited eastern Florida, where its bones have 
been found in Indian mounds. 

By historical times the Great Auk's breeding range had 
been reduced to three locations. One of these was Geirfugl- 
asker rocks, off Iceland. This colony vanished in 1830 with 
the island itself due to volcanic activity. Presumably, the 
birds transferred to Eldey Rock nearby, where the birds con- 
tinued to come until June 3, 1844, when the last known indi- 
vidual was killed. The third locality was Funk Island, off 
Newfoundland. Here the birds existed in such numbers that 
the sailing directions of the early 1700's gave the presence of 
Great Auks as one of the surest evidence of the location of the 
Grand Banks where fishermen came for cod. These fisher- 
men found Great Auks a welcome source of food, and killed 
them in large numbers. 

In 1 940 the species was known from but 80 collected speci- 
mens, plus some eggs and bones. But even these mute rem- 
nants of the species, even these were not safe, for during the 
air raids over Germany in World War II, two specimens, one 
in Mainz and one in Dresden, were bombed out of existence. 
There was no haven for even a dead Great Auk. 

The attitude of early man toward animals was militant 
and utilitarian. Subsequent periods added commercialism. 
This is well illustrated by one of the historians of the Great 
Auk, S. Grieve, writing in 1885, "yet the bird, whilst dis- 
appearing has in so far helped to the attainment of a higher 
object . . . the prosecution of fishing on the banks of New- 

Although it is generally agreed now that the last Great 
Auk died in 1844, English naturalists continued to search for 
the auk for several decades, and Alfred Newton, writing in 
1861, said he believed a few still existed. However, the near- 
est he came to first hand evidence when he was in Iceland in 
1858 was as follows: An old man named Erlendur Gudmunds- 
son showed him the gun with which he shot a Great Auk in 
1809. Reports, all suspect, dwindled and disappeared by 
mid-century. However, in the late 1930's circumstantial ac- 
counts of sightings of Great Auks in the Loften Islands were 
so convincing that an English naturalist investigated and 
found that they were based on introduced King Penguins. 
In 1936 the Norwegians had introduced 9 birds, 2 of which 
survived until 1944. 

The Great Auk has joined the ranks of some 45 bird spe- 
cies (and another 43 subspecies) that have become extinct 
within the last 300 years, as summarized by J. C. Greenway 
in his book, Extinct and Vanishing Birds. It is significant that 
41 of these 45 species lived on islands, and that of 12 more 
species probably extinct, all were island birds. 

Not a single species is known to have become extinct in 
this period in continental Europe, -Africa or South America. 
In North America there are two species (Carolina Parakeet 
and Passenger Pigeon;) in Asia, one (Crested Shelldrake); 
and in Australia, one (Scrub-bird). 

Island birds, living only on islands, or living in the sea 
and nesting only on islands, seem particularly viJnerable to 

the forces of extinction. 

But what are those forces of extinction? In some cases, 
the factors that killed the last individual specimen of a spe- 
cies are known. The killing of the last Great Auk was by 
a man on June 3, 1844 as mentioned above. The Stephen 
Island Wren was discovered and exterminated by a lighthouse 
keeper's cat in 1894 and the last Passenger Pigeon died of old 
age in a zoo in 1914. 

In other cases the introduction of cats, rabbits, goats, mon- 
gooses or pigs is thought to have wiped out species, or the con- 
verting of the natural landscape to cultivated fields has elimi- 
nated a species habitat, and with it, the species. Greenway 
gives a chart showing the general inverse relationship in the 
West Indies between the number of acres forested on an is- 
land and the number of species of birds that have become 
extinct there. The fewer forested acres the more birds that 
have disappeared. 

But no hard and fast rules will explain all cases. It seems 
that if we must generalize, the most valid generalization is 
that certain birds and other animal species are incompatible 
with the changed environment wrought by man. Imagine 
what it would be like to have herds of buffalo roaming the 
wheat and corn fields of the Midwest, or wolves and grizzly 
bears prowling about through the suburbs of Chicago. To 
be sure of saving many species it will be necessary to estab- 
lish preserves. 

Island species seem especially vulnerable. Examples from 
the 41 species mentioned above that come to mind are the 
Dodo of Mauritius, 10 species of honey creepers of the Ha- 
waiian Islands, a sandpiper of Tahiti, a macaw of Cuba, and 
a kingfisher of the Riu Kiu Islands. Such birds live on is- 
lands where the fauna is impoverished, competitors are few, 
and predators are scarce. In this splendid isolation they de- 
velop no tolerance for changed conditions. It is probably no 
accident that the world's largest living turtles evolved on 
islands like those of the Galapagos, where they were isolated. 
They have no adaptability to survive when overtaken by 
change. The very isolation that produced them was their 
undoing when change came. 

About 1900 Alfred Newton wrote, "As on the death of an 
ancient hero myths gathered around his memory as quickly 
as clouds around the setting sun, so have stories, probable as 
well as impossible, accumulated over the true history of the 
species." This of course is material for a gifted writer to 
weave into tales, either with or without a moral. One lesson 
from the Great Auk's history was drawn by the late Will 
Cuppy in his collection How to Become Extinct: "Under con- 
ditions prevailing in the civilized world, any bird that can't 
make a quick getaway is doomed, and more so if it is good 
to eat, if its feathers are fine for cushions, and if it makes ex- 
cellent bait for Codfish when chopped into gobbets. Such a 
bird, to remain in the picture, must drop everything else and 
develop its wing muscles to the very limit. It does seem as 
though that should be clear even to an Auk." 

For those who would read more of the Great Auk, I sug- 
gest pages 27 1 to 294 of Extinct and Vanishing Birds of the World 
by J. C. Greenway, and for a dramatization, the first part of 
the Signet book, The Great Auk by A. W. Meckert. 


The Museum's Spring 1967 series of film lectures again offers 

nine exciting programs on Saturday afternoons starting March 4th. 

This spring's series, open to adults and the children oj Museum Members 

and their guests, is the 127th in the biannual series. The programs 

are held in the James Simpson Theatre at 2:30; seats are held 

for members until 2:25, after which adult non-members are seated. 

Any seats remaining open after 2:30 may be used by high-school students. 


March 4 Laurel Reynolds 

Exquisite color filming of the interesting bits of natural 
history found close at hand. From time-lapse sequences of 
flowers unfolding to the taming of a lizard, Mrs. Reynolds 
covers a wealth of delightful subjects of the out-of-doors, with 
pictures and stimulating commentary. 

March 11 Maynard Malcolm Miller 

Dr. .miller, .noted rese.arch geologist at the University of 
Michigan, served as deputy project leader of the expedition 
to survey the Mt. Hubbard-Mt. Kennedy Massif in the St. 
Elias Mountains of Alaska, which was sponsored by the 
National Geographic Society in cooperation with the Boston 
Museum of Science. This film of the exciting storms, heli- 
copter flights, and surveying activities set in the magnificent 
mountain wilderness up to almost 14,000 feet above sea-level, 
is his record of the expedition. It includes a short sequence 
on the climb itself, in which Sen. R. F. Kennedy took part. 

March 18 Cleveland P. Grant 

The story of \ five-month one-man safari to study and film 
the natural behavior of lions and elephants. In his own cam- 
era-safari car Mr. Grant traveled and filmed in South West 
Africa, South Africa, Rhodesia and Mozambique. He shows 
exciting color footage of the wildlife of the Kalahari desert : 
zebra, kudu, springbok, gemsbok, giraffe, various eagles, os- 
triches and other birds. The film's highpoint is its coverage 
of hundreds of elephants of all ages, engaged in all their nat- 
ural pursuits. .\ spectacular close-up sequence of a pride of 
lions closes the film. 

March 25 Ed Lark 

A film of contrasts — the ancient with the modern, the bar- 
ren with the fertile, the hostile with the peaceful — because 
Israel is a land of contrasts. The perceptive camera takes us 
to all the sites of religious significance, ancient and modern, 
and to the bustling evidences of the emerging industrial society. 
From busy modern Haifa, to ancient Beersheba, this film 
shows us the old beside the new. We see bedouins ride their 
camels past modern housing developments on their way to 
the market place. Nazareth, the home of Jesus, changed 
little through the centuries, is shown; as well as King Solo- 
mon's Mines, in operation again after 3,000 years. 

April 1 Lewis Cotlow 

This color document.arv of the people and creatures of the 
Amazon valley delves into the mysteries of the all but im- 
passable rain forest. The areas inhabited by various ex- 
tremely primitive tribes were reached by traveling 1300 miles 
up the river by wood-burning boat and dugout canoe, with 
exciting nature footage all the way. Sequences filmed in 
the tribal villages themselves show curious customs, exotic 
methods of hunting, fishing, fighting. 

April 8 Edgar T. Jones 

Bush flying in the remote regions of the northland forms 
the exciting backdrop for this film of arctic wildlife, featuring 
the famous reindeer roimdup at Kidluit Bay, a complete 
Eskimo whale hunt, and sports fishing in arctic lakes. The 
film also deals with the economies of the North Country, and 
family life among the eskimos. 

Page 14 FEBRU.ART 

-SPRING, 1967 

April 15 Kenneth Richler 

Greece, whose past is the past of the entire Western world, 
retains its ties with antiquity through monuments and tradi- 
tions. This perceptive fihn takes us to the places of the an- 
cient glories, and tells something of what happened where. 
The camera calls at the Palace of Minos at Knossos, the 
temple to Apollo at Delphi, the Acropolis and the Parthenon. 
Among the great cities it films, are Corinth, Sparta, and 
Salonika. Yet it also shows the here and now of Modern 
Greece — big industry, contemporary education and modern 

April 22 Walter Breckenridge 

Dr. breckenridge, director of the Minnesota Museum of 
Natural History, presents this superb color documentary cov- 
ering a wealth of bird species, and various types of migration. 
He also deals with anatomy and feather structure, and sur- 
veys current research into unsolved problems of migration. 

April 29 Fran William Hall 

This color film record of the longest trailer trip ever made 
is filled with thrills and fun, accidents and heartaches. The 
roughest part for the 45-trailer caravan was the drive from 
Singapore to Lisbon. The group ranged in age from 1 to 75, 
and ranged in space over 34,725 miles in 32 countries, spend- 
ing a year and a half on the round-the-world trip. They took 
with them everything from their own doctor to the kitchen 
sink; their adventures included everything from being guests 
of the King of Nepal at a rare Sacred String Ceremony 
to struggling across the "Desert of Death" in Afghanistan. 

recent acquisitions — library 


The library has recently acquired a fine copy of William 
Huddesford's edition of Martin Lister's Historia Conchyliorum, 
published at Oxford, England, in 1770. The first edition of 
this celebrated work, a copy of which is in our collections, was 
issued in parts between 1685 and 1692. It consisted of over 
1,000 plates with one or more figures per plate, depicting all 
the land, fresh-water and marine shells, both recent and fos- 
sil, then known. There was no text as such, but some de- 
scriptions and indications of locality were engraved on the 
plates. There was no index. 

Huddesford's edition is essentially a reprint of this, ex- 
panded to include additional plates, 6 pages of notes from 
Lister's manuscripts, and two indexes in Latin and English 
giving the Linnean names for many of the species illustrated. 

Lister (1638?-f 712), an English physician and naturalist, 
has been cited as the first to approach the study of mollusks 
in a scientific way. The arrangement of the plates in the 
Historia Conchyliorum was, to some extent, derived from his 
studies of molluscan anatomy and was not haphazard. S. Peter 
Dance, in his Shell Collecting; An Illustrated History (London, 
1966), notes that, "Despite his extremely artificial system, 
Lister was far ahead of his time in segregating species into 
apparently discrete groups." Lister had intended to follow 
the publication of the plates with anatomical descriptions of 
each of these groups but did not complete the work. 

Because it was so much used by the systematists and col- 
lectors of the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, includ- 
ing Linnaeus, the Historia Conchyliorum, even in its incomplete 
state, still holds an important place in molluscan literature. 
— W. Peyton Fawcett, Associate Librarian 



A two-vear grant in support of systematic and paleoecological studies of fossils from 
the Mazon Creek area of northern Illinois has been awarded Eugene S. Richard- 
son, Jr., Curator of Fossil Invertebrates at Field Museum and Ralph G. Johnson, 
Museum Research Associate and Associate Professor at the University of Chicago. 
Thev will continue their study of more than 50,000 specimens, with intensive study 
of about 125 undescribed species. 

The results of this investigation of Middle-Pennsylvanian marine fauna will be 
published in Volume 1 2 of Fieldiana : Geology, which has been set aside for papers 
on Mazon Creek fossils; the completed work will present in one volume the fauna 
of the area and period as a whole. The Mazon Creek area with the adjoining strip 
mines is one of the world's great fossil-bearing localities. For more than a century, 
amateur collectors and professional paleontologists have worked together to bring 
to light the rich fauna of the coal-swamp forests of 250 million years ago. This 
research will continue the work and carry it into the shallow offshore marine waters. 


"EcTOP.-\R.\siTES OF P.^NAM.'ii," an 860-page book produced by some twenty 
scientific collaborators under the sponsorship of the United States Army and Field 
Museum, has been published by Field Museum Press. The massive work, which 
contains descriptions, identification keys and environmental studies of hundreds of 
species of fleas, parasitic flies, chiggers, mites, ticks, and other blood-sucking in- 
sects will be of enormous help in controlling diseases which affect millions of people 
in the tropics. Dr. Rupert Wenzel, Curator of Insects and co-editor of the book 
points out, "Only with this kind of information in hand can the public health worker 
determine which insect is responsible for a disease and how to eliminate it." 

Lieutenant Colonel \'ernon J. Tipton, U.- S. Army Medical Service Corps, is 
co-editor of the book, and co-ordinated the field efforts of the Army, the Middle 
American Research Unit of the National Institutes of Health, the Gorgas Memorial 
Laboratory, and other research institutions. This field work, one of the most in- 
tensive ever undertaken in Central America, provided most of the study material 
for the book. Field Museum's part in this major undertaking continues its historic 
interest in the natural history of Latin America. 


Museum open during February from 9 a.m. until 4 p.m. weekdays, until 5 p.m. on weekends. 

through February 28 \Vinter Journey : Who's Who in the Prehistoric Zoo? 

through February 28 Exhibit: The Gre.^t Auk 
In Stanley Field Hall; see story on page 10. 

through February 21 Photo Exhibit: 22nd Chicago International Exhibition 
OF Nature Photography. In Hall 9 Gallery. 

February 28 Concert: Indiana University Baroque Chamber Players 

The third in the Chicago Showcase of Music Series, presented by the Indiana 
University School of Music. At 8:15 p.m. in James Simpson Theatre. 

March 1—31 Exhibit: The Third Annual Chicago Shell Club Show. 

March 4 Movie: The World at Your Door, by Laurel Reynolds. 

March 1 1 Movie : The Mount Kennedy Expedition, by Maynard Malcolm Miller 
The above two events are part of the Spring Lecture Series, described on page 1 4. 

March 12 Movie: Northwest to Alaska, by Walter H. Berlet. 

.Shows the great wildfowl breeding grounds of the arctic northwest. It is pre- 
sented by Illinois Audubon Society. .'\t 2:30 p.m. in James Simpson Theatre. 


BY Mccormick trust 

Field Museum has been given S300,000 
by the trustees of the Robert R. McCor- 
mick Charitable Trust. This is the larg- 
est gift given by the McCormick Trust 
in 1966. The funds will be used to cre- 
ate a modern, centralized, exhibit prep- 
aration laboratory at the Museum, for 
the recently formed Department of Ex- 

Museum President James L. Palmer, 
in announcing the gift, said, "Although 
the Museum's exhibits are among the 
most extensive in the world and in some 
areas the finest, much revision must be 
done to make our exhibits contemporary 
in terms of scientific content, modern ex- 
hibition technique, and contemporary 
design and decor. It will be most diffi- 
cult to undertake any significant program 
until such a laboratory is created." 

The preparation laboratory will pro- 
vide studio and laboratory space for the 
Department of Exhibition's artists, de- 
signers, technicians and preparators. A 
museum-wide coordinated program of 
exhibition which is now being developed 
will be executed in the lab. Old ex- 
hibits will be renovated, new ones de- 
signed and built, and new techniques 
and materials for exhibition will be tested 
and developed. 

The Department of Exhibition, under 
Chief Curator Emeritus John R. Millar, 
was formed in March of last year. It 
establishes a centralized control over the 
Museum's preparation of exhibits. For- 
merly, each scientific department was 
responsible for its own exhibits. The 
department is composed of 12 artists and 
technicians. Each e-xhibit in the muse- 
lun is a one-time-only project, using 
many different materials and methods, 
and each represents many months of 
skilled, painstaking work by the mem- 
bers of the Department. 


Open to club 
members and 
interested non- 

Illinois Orchid Society, February 19 at 2 p.m. 
Illinois Audubon Society, March 1 at 7:30 p.m. 
Chicago Shell Club, March 12 at 2 p.m. 
Chicago Nature Camer.\ Club, March 14 at 7:45 p.m. 
Illinois Orchid Society, March 19 at 2 p.m. 



CHICAGO. ILLINOIS 60605 AC. 312. 922-9410 


E. Leland Webber, Director 


Edward G. Nash, Managing Editor 
Bea Paul, Associate Editor, graphics 




Volume 38, Number 3 March, 1967 


By Judith Phelps Little, Raymond Foundation 

Up many steps, into vast white space, speed to giant black- 
ened, battling elephants, then grinning victorious Gorgosau- 
rus. then where? Mummies! Some interest in sea mammals 
along the way: at last the mummies. Wonder why they were 
made? What kind of people were they? What are the pic- 
tures and picture-writings on their mummy cases? Unan- 
swered questions from the natural curiosity of a child faced 
with things strange — what a fertile field for the educator. 

The selection, organization and presentation of a muse- 
um's collections try to sow this field meaningfully. Some 
questions are answered in labels; exhibitions often present 
ideas as well as objects, the composition of their materials 
illustrating a principle or telling a story. In addition, how 
ever, presentation to children needs special consideration. 
This is the particular concern of one of the Museum's educa- 
tional divisions — Raymond Foundation. 

Raymond Foundation's Museum Journey program is one 
approach to the problem. It is designed for children in the 
Museum, alone, with friends, or with families. The Journey 
itinerary, singling out one subject or theme, and new every 
quarter, can be picked up by any Museum visitor. Here are 
questions, many like those the child would ask himself, which 
he must answer, in writing, by looking at the objects in the 
cases and reading labels, some prepared especially for him. 
W^hen he finishes, he has followed a logically developed theme 
in which selected important points have been made. His 
head is not just a jumble of "I wonder"s. He knows, for ex- 
ample, the traveling, hunting ways of the American Plains 
Indians or how animals prepare themselves for winter. 

This kind of concentration, in a vast museum like ours, 
is good, and the Journey Program has been enjoyed by many 
in its twelve years. In fact, this year's Spring Journey will 
concentrate further, increasing in depth an understanding of 
its subject. The subject, African sculpture, merits this. Time 
is required to comprehend or even enjoy a work of art, par- 
ticularly that of a strange culture. 

The traveler on this Journey will draw his subjects. African 
figures and masks in the Hall of Primitive Art. He will learn 
in this way to see the complex forms, and their articulation, 
of the .African sculptor. Certainly he will also be excited by 
the bold expressions of the faces he meets. 

To test this idea, a few fourth graders visiting the Museum 
with their class were given crayon and paper and asked to 
draw some figures they liked. They were encouraged, but 
not coached. The three drawings on this page represent their 
work. They were done by Donald Peterson (top), Susan 
Seibert (middle) and \'incent Zarlenga (bottom), of the Jef- 
ferson School in Niles, Illinois. It is hoped that our young 
Journeying artists this spring will enjoy this experience and 
discover a new pleasure in the Museum. 

Page 2 MARCH 

9 LWteM^J0Jta ^IAjcU: 


^^— ROM ITS earliest years much of 
1^ Field Museum's interest has cen- 
M tered in the nations of tropical 

America. Museum expeditions 
seeking specimens and data have scoured 
the length and breadth of the southern 
continent. Few regions, however re- 
mote, have been overlooked by our cura- 
tors and subsidized collectors. 

Today, almost seventy-five years after 
its founding, the Museum's tropical 
American collections bulge with millions 
of specimens and are conceded to be 
among the finest in the world. This ma- 
terial has been put to good use in scores 
of published books and several thousand 
technical reports of interest to specialists 
in many fields. 

Of the Central American countries, 
Guatemala has perhaps received the 
most attention, especially from the De- 
partments of Botany and Zoology. Field 
work in Guatemala was begun by the 
Division of Birds as early as 1904. Its 
interest in the country's remarkably di- 
verse avifauna has never since abated. 
And small wonder. Although scarcely 
the size of New York State, Guatemala 
boasts some 800 kinds of birds, including 
a number that are endemic or rare. 

The exceptional wealth of bird life is 
due to several favorable factors. Most 
important are the antiquity of Guate- 
mala's geological history and the high 
degree of volcanic activity that has given 
rise to a remarkably complex topography 
and several distinct climates, these often 
replacing each other very abruptly. Peri- 
ods of long isolation, whether geograph- 

ical or topographical, favor the evolu- 
tion of distinct forms. These may in 
turn be modified by the invasion of still 
other forms when isolation has ended. 
Important also is the country's location, 

Pharomachrus mocinno — 
commonly known as the 
Quetzal, national bird of 
Guatemala. This species, 
becoming increasingly rare, 
is protected by the govern- 
ment of Guatemala. The 
president of Guatemala 
granted permission for Em- 
met Blake to collect two 
specimens for the Field 
Museum collections. This 
is one of them. 

which favors the presence of both north- 
ern and tropical species. ItflP «• 

Three major life zones, each with its 
characteristic plant and animal life, are 
represented in Guatemala. The Trop- 
ical Zone extends from sea-level to alti- 
tudes of 3,000-4,000 feet, the Subtropi- 
cal Zone from 4,000-6,000 feet (much 
higher in places), and the Temperate 
Zone from 5,000-13,000 feet. Several 
subdivisions, based largely on humidity 
and soil, increase the diversity of habitat 
that is essential for so varied a bird fauna. 
Lists of the representative species of each 
would serve no useful purpose in the 
present context. Sufficient to say that 
wherever one travels in Guatemala, he 
will find birds in abundance and in 
enough varaiety to stound and please 
even the most blas^ tourist from the 

Those who visit the country in fall or 
winter can expect an additional bonus in 
the presence of scores of northern mi- 
grants seemingly quite at home in trop- 
ical surroundings. Many, especially 
among the warblers, tanagers, and ori- 
oles, may be seen for the first time in 
their subdued and not easily recognized 
winter plumage. The first glimpse of a 
wood thrush, catbird or perhaps a Bal- 
timore oriole feeding unconcernedly in 
company with toucans, trogons, mot- 
mots or other tropical birds may jolt one 
into questioning his sobriety. 

Of all the tropical countries I've vis- 
ited in the interest of ornithology over a 
period of thirty years, Guatemala re- 
mains my first love. Besides ornitholog- 

FiELD Museum's Guatemala Tour — There are still a very few reservations open for Field Museum's Guatemala Tour, 
October 27-November 12, 1967. Reported in full in last month's Bulletin, the tour will be limited to 60 persons, in two 
separate groups, each of which will be accompanied by members of the Museum's scientific stafT. For reservations and in- 
formation, write Guatemala Tour, Field Museum, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive. Chicago, Illinois, 60605. Tour price 
(all expense) is $1260, including $400 tax-deductible donation to Field Museum. 

MARCH Pages 

ical reasons, there are the more general 
ones of easy access from the United 
States by air, sea or highway; the superb 
chmate — never too cold and seldom ex- 
cessively hot; the diverse and magnifi- 
cent scenery; the numeros pre-Colum- 
bian and colonial ruins, silent reminders 
of long-past periods of grandeur; the col- 
orful clothing and weaving of the rural 
population, descendents of the once 
lordly Mayas. 

/I /I Y MEMORIES of thc "Land of 
/ I XI Eternal Spring" date back 
/ If f to 1934. At that time the 
Museum commissioned me to make a 
representative collection of birds and also 
to collect both plant and animal speci- 

birds of several families and many spe- 
cies. An isolated fruiting tree is usually 
the scene of frantic avian activity from 
dawn until dusk and there are few better 
sites for observing — or collecting — a di- 
verse assemblage of birds. All of the 
material needed for one of my assign- 
ments, a Caribbean lowland forest group, 
was packed for shipment to Chicago 
within ten days after setting up my first 
camp near Puerto Barrios. Two species 
of toucan, the keel-billed and collared 
aracari, are featured in the exhibit. Sev- 
eral other tropical birds and a wintering 
wood thrush are also shown in it. 

Caciques and oropendulas, colonial- 
nesting relatives of blackbirds, meadow- 
larks and orioles, are characteristic of 

the Museum's order for a typical nesting 
colony of oropendulas obviously pre- 
sented problems of some magnitude. 

My companion in this venture was the 
late Karl P. Schmidt, Curator of Rep- 
tiles (later Chief Curator of Zoology), a 
born naturalist and indefatigable col- 
lector. His presence reassured me, and 
in due course we located a suitable col- 
ony in the crown of an enormous ceiba 
tree. But there were complications. The 
trunk was a good five feet in diameter 
and its base heavily buttressed and quite 
impossible to scale. Worse yet, several 
swarming wasp nests were scattered 
among the upper branches. I was dis- 
mayed but Karl dismissed my qualms 
with a disdainful "duck soup." We pon- 

Field Museum habitat group showing nesting colony of Montezuma oropendulas. In Hall 20. 

mens for three exhibits of distinctive nat- 
ural habitats and their associated bird 
life (now in Hall 20). First on my agenda 
was material for an exhibit showing a 
segment of tropical rain forest, specifi- 
cally the forest crown and its character- 
istic birds. 

Most tropical species are non-migra- 
tory but at certain seasons many range 
widely in search of trees with ripening 
fruit. In the course of a day such a tree 
mav be visited bv a hundred or more 

tropical America. One of the largest 
and most spectacular species is Monte- 
zuma oropendula, a crow-sized oriole, 
mainly chestnut in color with a bright 
yellow tail. Their pendant nests, 3-5 
feet deep, are woven of grass and are 
usually attached to the top-most branches 
of large trees. At a distance the)' resem- 
ble elongated gourds. A colony may in- 
clude a hundred or more closely-spaced 
nests and often is associated with wasp 
nests, evidently for protection. Filling 

dered the situation and agreed on a 

Hours before dawn next day, we ar- 
rived at the tree with ax and lantern. 
As chief of mission and much my senior 
in the Museum hierarchy Karl demand- 
ed, and was quickly granted, the honor 
of drawing "first blood." I smote mos- 
quitoes, gave moral support, and held 
the lantern. It was strenuous work. 
Karl, stripped to the waist, set to with a 
right good will. As time passed and f)er- 

Page 4 MARCH 

spiration poured, I applauded his efforts 
and praised his axmanship, the vigor 
and accuracy of his stroke, the size of 
the chips and, especially, the stamina of 
so mature a man of science. But beware 
the young ornithologist of vacuous mien ! 
His guile may be that of the fox, and his 
deviousness that of the serpent. 

In due course the tree crashed to the 
ground, and with it a tangle of 127 nests 
in various stages of completion. As egg- 
laying had scarcely begun, the destruc- 
tion was not lasting. Breeding oro- 
pendulas quickly rebuild their colonies 
and, in any case, spend much of their 
time attempting to dismantle unguarded 
nests of their neighbors. The retrieval 
of nests and the preservation of plant ac- 

Rare homed guan, Oreophasis derbianus. 

cessories needed for the Museum's ex- 
hibit took several days, for work was often 
interrupted by attacking wasps. 

/\ TRIP OVER the Pan-.Amcrican 
^^^1 highway of Guatemala will am- 
X I ply reward anyone who has an 
interest in birds. The Pacific slope is 
much drier and less heavily forested than 
the Caribbean, and its avifauna conse- 
quently strikingly different. Although 
some species are common to both re- 

gions, even these usually are represented 
by distinct geographical races or varie- 
ties. Many birds of the Pacific littoral 
have no close relative in the wet forests 
of the other coast, and faunally the two 
areas are different worlds. 

Even more arresting than either is the 
bird life of the arid interior valleys, as 
that of the upper Motagua River. The 
region is essentially a desert, which has a 
quite distinctive flora and fauna both as 
to species and genera. Although remote 
from either coast it is easily accessible to 
tourists. The village of Salami was for 
a time my base of operations while col- 
lecting desert birds. The region abounds 
with quail, terrestrial cuckoos, motmots, 
desert woodpeckers and wrens of several 
species, flycatchers and gaudy orioles. 

Collecting here began at earliest dawn 
and usually before the heat of noon there 
were enough specimens to keep one busy 
at the skinning table until late at night. 
As my collection grew, it became neces- 
sajjy to travel farther each day, and 
finally to the distant pine-clad moun- 
tains. This called for earlier and earlier 
departures and better transportation. 
For a time I depended on a reluctant 
mule of scant ambition, but ultimately 
I rented a weary bicycle on which I la- 
bored as much as fifteen miles. Each 
way, that is. After three decades, I re- 
member not so much the strenuous field 
work and bountiful bird life as the de- 
bacle on my final day afield. While 
speeding down a footpath that seemed 
needlessly circuitous I impetuously tried 
a shortcut across the desert. Cactus 
grew in abundance and I quickly gained 
new respect for that desert weed and 
what it can do to bicycle tires and hu- 
man skin. 

Many technical papers and even book- 
length reports about birds that occur in 
Guatemala have been published. One 
species, of which very little is known, is 
especially noteworthy by reason of its 
rarity and remarkably restricted range. 

The Giant Grebe numbers fewer than 
200 individuals and is found only on 
Lake Atitlan, a relatively small body of 
water that nestles between symmetrical 
volcanoes. A place of spectacular 
beauty. Lake Atitlan is a focal point for 
most visitors to Guatemala. 

V'isiting bird lovers who yearn for a 
red letter day or an enviable conversa- 

tion piece that will serve for decades 
should be alert to any Pied-billed Grebe 
of luiusual appearance. Large size, 
heavy bill and, especially, a black head 
and neck are its hallmarks. 

Z\ST .\ND MOST important item on the 
Museum's agenda was the quet- 
»zal, Guatemala's national bird 
and the most spectacular member of the 
pan-tropic trogon family. This fabled 
species, scarcely the size of a pigeon, was 
revered by the pre-Columbian Indians 
who invested it with special religious sig- 
nificance. Male quetzals are bright 
green above, deep crimson below and 
have a distinctive helmet-like crest. 
Filmy plumes of the rump may extend 
almost three feet beyond the white tail, 
adding much to the bird's distinctive 
beauty. The female, lacking the crest 
and elongated plumes, is relatively drab. 
Quetzals live in humid forests at me- 
dium altitudes, from southern Mexico to 
western Panama. Tree ferns and epi- 
phytes are conspicuous elements of this 
"cloud forest" flora. Llianas lace the 
trees, and the trees, like the ground be- 
low, are often covered with deep, spongy 
moss. In recent years much of this dis- 
tinctive habitat has been destroyed by 
man. But here and there undisturbed 
plots remain, sheltering the diminishing 
populations of quetzals, horned guans 
and other unique birds that cannot sur- 
vive the loss, or even modification of 
their habitat. 

Few persons today are privileged to 
see quetzals in their natural surround- 
ings. However, visitors to the Museum 
will find in Hall 20 a carefully recon- 
structed segment of a Guatemala "cloud 
forest," together with a pair of birds 
mounted as they appeared in life above 
my camp on the slopes of \'olc£n de 

Note : The following bird guides, avail- 
able in the Museum's Book Shop, are 
recommended for Guatemala. 
Blake, Emmet R. Birds of Mexico: a guide 
for field identification. University of Chi- 
cago Press, 1953. $8.50. Although 
written for Mexico, this fieldguide in- 
cludes the descriptions of virtually all 
Guatemala birds. 
Smithe, Frank B. The Birds of Tikal. 
American Museum of Natural His- 
tory, 1966. $7.50. 

MARCH Pages 


We show here a small sampling of the 
moic than 125 prints just exhibited at the 
Museum in the Annual Nature Photo 
Show. For twenty-two years the Chica- 
go Nature Camera Club has culled the 
best from thousands of entries from all 
over the world, with the aid of distin- 
guished juries of naturalists and photog- 
raphers. This year's jury panel was 
made up of Hymen Marx, Associate 
Curator of Reptiles and Amphibians, 
Field Museum; Dr. John Clarke, Asso- 
ciate Curator of Sedimentary Petrology 
also at the Museum; Dr. Frank E. Rice, 
Fellow of the Photographic Society of 
America; Grace H. Lanctot, photogra- 
phy instructor and nature lecturer; and 

Thomas M. Iverson, General Foreman 
of Floriculture, Garfield Park Conserv- 

One of the judges. Dr. Clarke, had 
these comments on the wealth of mate- 
rial he was called on to evaluate: "This 
was my first experience as a judge for 
this show, and I was impressed with the 
large number of exceedingly well-taken 
photographs. It seemed to me that the 
methods of the club in registering judges' 
selections were the most objective pos- 
sible imder the circumstances. Each of 
the five judges rated each picture inde- 
pendently with no knowlege of how the 
others were voting. Then those photo- 
graphs with the highest scores were dis- 

cussed, and another independent vote 
was taken. In some cases three or four 
votings were required to choose a winner. 
Although no one of us agreed with all of 
the final selections, by and large the se- 
lections represented a consensus. Our 
main standards were photographic qual- 
ity, artistic composition, and representa- 
tion of nature, not necessarily in that 
order. I must emphasize how difficult 
it was to choose from more than 3,200 
slides and about 420 prints; it was ex- 
ceedingly hard work, but I think I can 
speak for all of us in saying that we en- 
joyed it, and the club treated us so gra- 
ciously that it was a pleasure to do." 
The Chicago Nature Camera Club was 

Page 6 MARCH 






organized in 1944, the first organization 
of its kind in the United States. In 1943, 
Field Museum itself sponsored what is 
probably the forerunner of this annual 
event, a show called "Lenses on Na- 
ture," as part of its 50th Anniversary 
Celebration. The following year Hu- 
bert J. Johnson, an Associate of the Pho- 
tographic Society of America, organized 
the Nature Camera Club of C:hicago, 
which from the beginning was adiliated 
with the Photographic Society of Amer- 
ica. The new organization undertook 
the organization of the first Chicago In- 
ternational Exhibition of Nature pho- 
tography, since then held annually at 
Field Museum. 

In addition to the prints, both black 
and white and color, some 800 slides are 
selected each year and are presented at 
two successive weekend afternoon slide 
shows in the Museum's James Simpson 
Theatre. Through the years this show 
has earned the reputation of being the 
largest show of its kind in the world, and 
of providing the best service to prospec- 
tive exhibitors in the handling of slides 
and prints submitted. The club wel- 
comes entries from photographers all 
over the world. 

An affiliate of the Chicago Area Cam- 
era Clubs Association, the club also wel- 
comes interested visitors at its monthly 
meetings held in the 2nd floor Meeting 
Room at Field Museum on the second 
Tuesday of each month at 7 :45 p.m. 







MARCH Page? 

_.,_.,_..r-» i-ki- r-\ ir-Ki-rr^ Museum open from 9 a.m. to 
CALENDAR OF EVENTS 5 p.m. during March and Apnl 

March 1 -May 31 Spring Journey: Africa: Faces of the Forest and Grassland 
A self-guided tour of African cultural exhibits for youngsters. Direction sheets 
available at information desk and at Museum entrances. See story on page 2. 

March 1-31 Exhibit: Third Annual Chicago Shell Show. Stanley Field Hall. 

March 1 1 Film-lecture: Mount Kennedy Expedition, by Maynard M. Miller. 

March 12 Film: Northwest to Alaska, by Walter H. Berlet. A film of the great 
wildfowl breeding grounds, presented by the Illinois Audubon Society. 

March 18-April 9 Exhibit: Variations on a Theme. A photographic study of the 
geometric perfection of the stonecrops, a group of succulent plants. In Hall 29. 

March 1 8 Film : African Elephant, by Cleveland P. Grant. 

March 25 Film : Israel, by Ed Lark. 

April 1 Film: The Amazon, by Lewis Cotlow. 

April 8 Film : Image of Greece, by Kenneth Richter. 
All films are shown at 2:30 p.m. in James Simpson Theatre. 

April 18 Concert: Indiana University Jazz Ensemble 

Free to the public at 8:15 p.m. in James Simpson Theatre. 

Chicago Shell Club, March 12 and April 9 at 2 p.m. 
Chicago Nature Camera Club, March Hand April 11 at? :45p.m. 
Illinois Orchid Society, March 19 at 2 p.m. 
Illinois Audubon Society, April 5 at 7 p.m. 



The Development Committee of Field Museum's Board of Trustees, formed in 
early 1966, has achieved notable success in its initial program. The Committee, 
vmder the Chairmanship of Mr. Harry O. Bercher, President of International Har- 
vester Company, assumed the responsibilities of determining Field Museum's long 
term needs and planning the means by which to meet these needs. 

To secure one segment of necessary annual operating income, solicitation of con- 
tributions from Chicago corporations and professional firms was begun. The appeal 
was the first of its kind since the Museum's founding. More than 100 corporations 
and businesses responded with contributions, 38 giving one thousand dollars or more. 
These 38 corporations have been elected Corporate Associates of Field Museum. 
Firms which each year contribute a thousand dollars or more to the operating 
budget of the Musevun will be honored on a special plaque now being designed for 
display in Stanley Field Hall. 

An increased annual operating income is perhaps the most immediate need of 
Field Museum. Funds for necessary building maintenance and repair, updated 
employee benefits, and expanded research, exhibition and educational programs are 
essential for maintaining Field Museum's position as a great world museum. It is 
hoped that the excellent response of Chicago business to the present program will 
stimulate other corporations and individuals to provde additional and essential 
financial support. 

Current Corporate Associates of Field Museum are : 

Arthur Andersen & Co. 

.Appleton Electric Company 

Borg-Warnee Corporation 

Carson Pirie Scott & Co. 

Chicago Daily News 

Chicago Sun-Times 

Chicago Title & Trust Company 

Columbia Pipe & Supply Company 

Commerce Clearing House, Inc. 

A. B. Dick Company 

Reuben H. Donnelley Corporation 

Draper & Kramer, Inc. 

Marshall Field & Company 

First National Bank of Chicago 

General Biological Supply House, Inc. 

\V. \V. Grainger, Inc. 

Harris Trust and Savings Bank 

Hart Schaffner & Marx 

Ii.iiNois Bell Telephone Company- 

Inland Steel Company 
International Harvester Company 
Jewel Companies, Inc. 
Jupiter Corporation 
M. S. Kaplan Company 

LaSalle National Bank 
Link Belt Company 
John Mohr & Sons 
Northern Trust Company 
Peoples Gas Light and Coke Company 
Playboy Magazine 
Quaker Oats Company 
Rollins Burdick Hunter Co. 
G. D. Searle & Co. 
Sears Roebuck and Co. 
Sunbeam Corporation 
, Texaco Inc. 
Victor Comptometer Corporation ' "■ 


The National Science Foundation has 
awarded a $27,100 grant to Field Mu- 
seum for work by Hymen Marx, Associ- 
ate Curator of Reptiles and Amphibians 
and George B. Rabb, Museum Research 
Associate, Division of Reptiles and Am- 
phibians. Mr. Rabb is also Associate 
Director, Chicago Zoological Society. 
The grant will support an investigation 
into the phylogeny (evolutionary history) 
of the poisonous snakes — the vipers, and 
into the phylogeny of the characters of 
advanced snakes. This study is an out- 
growth of previous research. 

"Kruger Park Derby," awarded an hon- 
orable mention in the 22nd Chicago Interna- 
tional .Nature Photography Exhibition held 
last month at the Museum, was taken by 
LuDi Blum, APSSA, of Johannesburg. 



CHICAGO. ILLINOIS 60605 A.C. 312. 922-9410 

E. Leland Webber, Director 


Edward G. Nash, Managing Editor 
Bea Paul, Associate Editor, graphics 


printed by field museum press 


V X' 




It will be an evening in Guatemala on Members' Night May 5, when members and their families will also take 
the traditional look behind the scenes of world-wide Field Museum research. 

The evening's events will continue from 6 to 10 o'clock. Research areas will open at 7 and the cafeteria will 
be open from 6 to 8. Chartered buses, free to members, leave at frequent intervals from Jackson and State Streets 
to provide convenient transportation. 

The Guatemalan theme will be carried out in a self-guided tour of Museum exhibits featuring Guatemalan 
subjects in anthropology, botany, geology and zoology. The tour as a whole will give the in-museum "tourist" a 
good look at the little Central American republic with Indians still living lives out of the past and its vividly 
contrasting mountain highlands and tropical lowlands. Staff members will be posted at many exhibits to comment 
and answer questions. 

A highpoint of the evening will be presentation of a just-published volume in the monumental series, "Flora of 
Guatemala," by Dr. Louis O. Williams, Chief Curator of Botany, to a representative of the Republic of Guatemala. 

Marimba music and Latin American refreshments, including Guatemalan black bean Boquitos, chia and Jamaica 
will be served. 

Films on Guatemala and on Maya civilization will be shown. Dr. Louis O. Williams will discuss Guatemalan 
plants and peoples in an illustrated lecture and Loren P. Woods, Curator of Fishes, will speak and show slides on 
"Fishing, Farming and Festivals in Guatemala and Southern Mexico." 

A special exhibit for Members' Night of Guatemalan contemporary handicrafts will be displayed in Hall Nine, 
where the Costa Rican gold figures — Central American Indian work done in pre-Spanish times — will also be 
shown. New acquisitions such as the Great Auk and the chimpanzee paintings will be displayed. 

\ Guatemalan market stall will be operated by the Botany Department. The Department will also display 
work from manuscript to finished volumes on the "Flora of Guatemala" and will exhibit herbarium specimens 
from Guatemala. Evolution and reproduction of plants will be shown in fungi, ferns and flowering plants. 

The Department of Anthropology will display Guatemalan Indian textiles, recent acquisitions in African eth- 
nology, and specimens and methods of research on New Ireland art. Dr. Kenneth Starr and Dr. Hoshien Tchen 
will conduct an East Asian open house, with displays of materials and consultations on Chinese art and archaeology. 
Mrs. Christine Danziger will demonstrate the treatment of leather and cleaning of wooden specimens in the 
Robert R. McCormick Conservation Laijoratory. 

Dr. Emmet R. Blake will preside over a display of Guatemalan Ijirds in the Division of Birds, while in the 
Mammals Division Guatemalan mammals will be displayed and an exhibit will illustrate the meaning of color in 
mammals. The Division of Fishes will emphasize the diversity of salt and fresh water fishes in one display, while 
in another, "Fish Bones from Guam," it will be shown how ichthyologists and anthropologists cooperate. Major 
types of poisonous snakes from Guatemala will be displayed in the Division of Reptiles and Amphibians. 

Synhranchus marmoratus, a Guatemalan eel-like air breathing fish that starts life as a female and ends life as a 

Continued on page 8 

Page 2 APRIL 






Kli J.B^t«>\V.ltiU<Um-iJIIIIHIII ■! ■•JBMCaBI.- 

^_)' Low/i' 0. Williams, Chief Curator, Botany 

Crescentia alata HBK. is one of the commonest trees 
alons; the Pacific from Mexico to Nicaragua. It occurs 
also on the Atlantic coast but less commonly, and up 
into the mountains of Central America to about 3000 feet 
elevation. The tree has been carried to and is cultivated 
occasionally in the tropics of the old world. On the arid 
Pacific plain of Central America from Guatemala to Nica- 
ragua jicaros or morros, as they are usually known locally, 
sometimes occur in almost pure stands, especially in level 
places where the drainage is poor and water is likely to collect 
and stand during the wet season. 

T\\c jicaros or morros have attracted the attention of Euro- 
pean peoples since the time of discovery because of their uses. 

The leaf has the shape of a cross and has l)een taken to be of 
religious significance by many people. In clearing fields or 
pastures the country people will very often leave the jicaro 
trees, either because of the presumed religious connection or 
l>ecause of the economic value of the tree. The early explorers 
in Central America thought that the Indians of the region 
must surely have had knowledge of the cross and its signifi- 
cance because the leaves of this tree were cruciform. 

Oviedo y Valdes in his "Historia General de las Indias" 
(Lib. VIII, Cap. IV, 1535) described lx)th species of Crescen- 
tia quite accurately and in fact knew more aliout them than 
did Linnaeus more than 200 years later when he supplied 
one of them with a botanical name. Oviedo marvelled at the 

APRIL Page 3 

H— His Majesty Charles III, King of Spain, issuet 
Spain and to send a scientific expedition to collect 
specimens. Two artists accompanied the expedition, 
that one of them prepared the original of the illustrati 
The expedition of Sesse and Aiocitio, the two pr. 
which they collected finally found their way back to 
imagining, were stored away in Madrid and there 
Museum in 1935 for study by Paul C. Standley. Inti 
been shipped from Alexico to Spain some 130 years 
studied soon after they were made they would now 
than a century most of them had been re-collected at 

30 803 

1 A^-3>,te 


cross-shaped lea\-es of the jicaro and took some of them back 
to Spain with him. Oviedo was one of the first to suggest that 
the Indians could not have been ignorant of the cross because 
of the e\idence of the leaves of the jicaro. 

The wood of the jicaros has been used to make special 
things. It is not difficult to work when recently cut but as it 
seasons it becomes as "hard as iron" and is resistant to wear. 

Stirrups have been made from the wood oi jicaro trees in 
Central America since colonial times and some stirrups, 
which might be considered objets d'art, still exist and occasion- 
ally are to be found in use. The wood is still used to make 
stirrups but the workmanship of most of those now made is 
very much less skillful than that of those made in the past. 
This apparent decadence in artisanship applied to stirrups 
could well be due, in part at least, to the decreasing im- 
portance of saddle animals in travel. 

Containers for liquids and for foods are made from the 
durable shell of the fruits of the jicaro and from a related 
species, Crescentia cujete L. These cups or containers, often 

called suacales as reported b\' Oviedo 425 years ago, are com- 
monly used by the country people of Central America and 
are sold in all markets. Occasionally the surface of the shell 
is carved with intricate designs and the fruits used for mantle- 
piece ornaments. 

The pulp of the jicaro fruit is said to be used as a food but 
it must not be commonly eaten. I found it usually quite un- 
palatable. The seeds of the jicaro, however, are an ingredient 
used in preparing a refreshing drink called horchata. The seeds 
are often to be had in village or city markets. Mi.xed with 
the seeds of maize they are also fermented to make a kind of 
beer which is sometimes called chicha. This chicha was prob- 
ably one of the kinds of fermented drinks known to the 
Central American Indians before the conquest. 

Cattle eat the contents of the jicaro fruits and seem to find 
them nutricious. Fermentation takes place in the fruits after 
they fall to the ground and in due course the pulp and seeds 
dry out. The cattle are said to eat them when they are fer- 
mentina: and after the\- ha\e dried out. Forage is usuallv 

Page 4 APRIL 

a/ Order on October 27, 1786 to establish a botanical garden in New 
iral objects and to make the illustrations necessary to elucidate these 
'. Dios Vicente de Cerda and Athanasio Echeverria. It may be assumed 
rft, oj the calabash tree, now in Field Museum's herbarium, 
botanists, continued in Mexico from 1788 until 7804. The materials 
inical garden in Madrid. These collections, at that time rich beyond 
nainedjor more than 100 years. The specimens were sent to Field 
y enough they arrived in Chicago in the same packets in which they had 
If the collections of Sesse, Moctho and their companions had been 
'£ to our knowledge of the Mexican flora. Neglected for well more 
ibed by other botanists. 

Left, shield of Nicaragua among other 
designs carved on container made from 
parts of three jUaro fruits. 

Center, decoratively carved Spanish Colo- 
nial stirrup made from jicaro wood. 

Below, the orchid Laelia rubcsccns 
grows abundantly in the branches nf 
a jicaro tree. 

limited along the coastal plain during the dry season, which 
occasionally is quite severe, so it is not unlikely that cattle 
would find the fruit acceptable as forage in that season. 

The relative abundance of the calabash tree, and of certain 
kinds of leguminous trees, may be at least partly due to the 
cattle eating these seeds and some of the seeds passing through 
the animal still in condition to germinate. I have seen seed- 
lings of the calabash tree, or jicaro, and of some leguminous 
trees emerging from cow dung after the first rains of the wet 
season. The cow dung supplies the fertilizer which gives the 
seedlings a greater chance of survival on these sterile coastal 

The fruits of the calabash tree are usually oval to nearly 
round and vary greatly in size. Normally they are some four 
to six inches long and three to five inches in diameter. Fruits 
have been reported as much as a foot long. I have not seen 
any this large and Ijelieve that these reports are due to con- 
fusion of the fruit of the calabash tree with the calabash gourd. 

The small flat and shining seeds may be separated from the 

pulp, when the fruits are mature, either by drying or first 
fermenting naturally and then drying. The seeds are found 
in the markets in this semi-cleaned condition. 

A use which may prove of greater importance than any of 
the present ones may be the utilization of the oil in the seeds. 
The unhulled seeds are alxjut 35% oil. The oil, which may 
be extracted by hydrolic pressure and probably in other ways, 
is a bland and relatively staijle edible oil. It may well partially 
fill the need for edible oils in the region where the tree grows 
so abundantly. I do not know of the oil being expressed and 
used in Central America but there does not seem to be any 
reason why it should not be. 

The calabash trees along the coastal plain from Guatemala 
to Nicaragua are hosts to three kinds of orchids which often 
occur on them in great abundance. Two of these orchids are 
species of Oncidiuni and Epidendrum, and not very con- 
spicuous. The third is Laelia rubescens which is quite showy and 
when in flower gives these attractive jjcaro trees somewhat the 
aspect of a peach tree in flower. 

.APRIL Page 5 




by Donald Collier, Chief Curator, Anthropology 

One of the most interesting aspects of 
pre-Columbian art in the Isthmian re- 
gion of Central America is the large 
number of gold ornaments found in 
graves. When the Spaniards explored 
Panama and Costa Rica in the six- 
teenth century, they found the Indians 
making a variety of metal ornaments. 
We now know that this metal-working 
art had been going on in this area for at 
least a thousand years before the Span- 
ish conquest. 

A special exhiijition called Aborigi- 
nal Met.-\l\vork in Lower 
Americ.\ will be shown in H.-\ll 9 
G.ALLERY from .'\pril 1 through May 7. 

This exhibition, which was organized 
by Doris Stone and Carlos Balser of the 
National Museum of Costa Rica, con- 
tains more than 100 objects illustrating 
the forms and technology of Costa 
Rican metal ornaments. These are il- 
lustrated and discussed in a catalogue 
which will be available during the 

Metal was used in Costa Rica main- 
ly for ornaments, not for tools. Most 
common were objects of gold, gold- 
copper alloy (called tumbaga), and cop- 
per. Many of these ornaments were 
made with holes or rings for suspension 
as pendants or parts of necklaces, inter- 

spersed with gold or tuinljaga beads. 
Other forms served as breast- plates, ear 
rings, ear plugs, and miniature bells. 
These ornaments were in the form of 
human and animal figures. The favorite 
animals depicted were the jaguar, deer, 
monkey, lizard, frog, catfish, and birds. 
The favorite bird, usually called an 
eagle by modern collectors, probaljly 
represents a vulture. 

The three-dimensional ornaments 
were cast by the lost wax process, which 
consisted of four basic steps. A figure 
was modelled in wax and enclosed in a 
clay mold with venting holes. The mold 
was then heated to harden the clay and 
melt out the wax model. While the mold 
was still hot, molten metal was poured 
into the cavity vacated by the wax. 
Hollow casts were made by modeling 
the wax over a core of clay and charcoal 
which remained behind when the wax 
was melted out. This core could i)e re- 
moved after the metal figure was cast, 
but was sometimes left in place. 

Gold was hammered into sheets to 
be made into ornaments. During this 
process the gold was heated (annealed) 
from time to time to overcome the 
brittleness and cracking that resulted 
from cold hammering. The gold orna- 
ments were then shaped by hammering 
and cutting and the designs were made 
by incising, embossing, chasing, and by 
cutting out small sections of metal. 
Sheets of metal and parts of ornaments 
were joined by welding, soldering, and 
crimping. Tumbaga ornaments were 
gilded by the mise en couleur process in 
which the surface copper in the alloy 
was dissolved by pickling in acid plant 
juices, which left a higher gold content 
on the surface. 

The steps in casting, and all these 
other metallurgical techniques and 
processes are illustrated by specimens in 
the special exhibition of Costa Rican 
metal work. 

In spite of the variety and complex- 
ity of Isthmian metallurgy and its 
considerable antiquity, there is clear 
archaeological evidence that metal 
working did not originate locally but 
diff"used from South America. The 
earliest gold working in Peru is from the 
Chavin culture of 700 B.C., and gold and 
copper casting were developed in Peru 

by the time of Christ. Gold working, in- 
cluding lost wax casting, seems to have 
Iseen de\eloped in Columbia i)y the 
first century .\.v>. Gold working had 
spread to Panama by the third century, 
and to Costa Rica by .^.d. 500-700. 

It is a surprising fact that the great 
Classic cultures of Mesoamerica, such as 
the Teotihuacan culture of Mexico and 
the Maya culture of Yucatan and 
Guatemala, dating from A.D. 300-900, 
included no metallurgy. It is curious 
because to the north the Old Copper 
Indians of Wisconsin were making 
copper tools before 2000 B.C. and the 
later W'oodland Indians of the Midwest 
continued to use copper for tools and 

ornaments. To the southeast in Panama 
and Costa Rica, as we have seen, metal 
working was common by the middle of 
the Classic period in Mesoamerica. The 
earliest gold found in a Maya site is a 
trade piece from Panama at Copan, 
Honduras, on the southeast border of 
the Maya area, dating from A.D. 780. 
Only a few other finds of trade gold 
have been made in Late Classic Maya 
cities. Not until the Post-Classic period, 
after A.D. 1000, docs metal working be- 
come common in Guatemala and 
Mexico. And in the centuries before 
Cortez it was not the Mayas but the 
Aztecs and the Mixtecs who became 
the great goldsmiths of Mesoamerica. 

Far left, lizard, open 
filigree casting 

Left, human effigy in gold alloy 

Above, parrot with tail like that 
of a Cebus monkey 

Right, frog with spine markings 
done in open back casting 

The raffish figure on the cover is 
cataloged simply, "Man with 
a bottle." 

The pieces shown here were 
selected from the exhibit In 
Hall 9 Gallery. All measure 
less than three inches. 

APRIL Page 7 



Museum open from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. 
during April, and until 6 p.m. in May. 

April 1 -May 7 Exhibit: Ancient Isthmian Metalwork. Small sculptures, mostly in 
gold, of monkeys, birds and reptiles, ornaments and ceremonial objects, made 
by pre-Columbian Indians. From the National Museum of Costa Rica. 

through May 31 Spring Journey: Afric.\-faces of the Forest and Grassland. A 
self-guided tour of African cultural exhibits for young people. Direction sheets 
available at information desk and at Museum entrances. 

April 18 Concert: Indiana University Jazz Ensemble. 
8:15 p.m. in James Simpson Theatre. 

April 1 5 Film-lecture: Image of Greece, by Kenneth Richter. 

April 1 5 Museum Traveler D.\y. Boys and girls who have successfully completed 
groups of 4, 8, 12, 16, or 17 Museum Journeys will receive awards at 10:30 a.m. 
in James Simpson Theatre. Following the presentations the color film, Islands 
OF the Se.\ will be shown; it deals with some of the wild-life seen by Charles 
Darwin on the voyage of the Beagle. All boys and girls are welcome. 

April 22 Cub Scout Day Program: Mountains of America, the April theme of the 
Cub Scouts, will be emphasized in a film presentation at 10:30 a.m. which will 
show some of the natural history of mountains. All boys and girls are welcome. 

April 22 Film-lecture: Mysteries of Bird Migration, by Walter Breckenridge. 

April 29 Camp Fire Girl Day Program: "Real Movies." Films on puppet 
shadow play tie in with the Camp Fire Girl's theme of creative arts. After the 
film presentation direction sheets on related Museum exhibits will be made 
available. Open to all boys and girls at 10:30 in James Simpson Theatre. 

April 29 Film-lecture: "Trailer 'Round the World," by Fran William Hall. 

May 5 Members' Night: An Evening in Guatemala, see story^ page 2. 

Nature Camera Club of Chicago, April 11 and May 9 at 7:45 p.m. 
Illinois Orchid Society, April 16 at 2 p.m. 

MEMBERS' NIGHT {Continuedjrompagel) 

male, will be studied in an exhibit offered by the Division of Vertebrate Anatomy. 
The special adaptations in the respiratory organs of the fish as they relate to 
airbreathing will be shown. "The fish is capable of living out of water for long 
periods," according to Dr. Karel F. Liem, Assistant Curator of Vertebrate Ana- 
tomy. "Another interesting feature is that each fish starts out as a female. After 
two to three years, the fish changes sex and becomes a male." 

A species of tiny beedes which includes no males will be the subject of an ex- 
hibit in the Division of Insects. "Rats, Bats and Bugs of Panama" will be a display 
on a book vital to the health of millions in the tropical world, "Ectoparasites of 
Panama," published in January by Field Museum Press. 

The Department of Geology will illustrate its current research and its continuing 
scientific work. There will also be an exhibit of Guatemalan volanic materials. 

Literature on Guatemala, including books on pottery, textiles, flora and fauna 
will be shown in the library. Sketches made by participants in the Spring Journey, 
"Faces of Africa," will be shown beside their African-mask originals in the Hall of 
Primitive Art. A perennially interesting area, the taxidermy laboratory, where 
animals are mounted for exhibition, will be open. Taxidermist Carl Cotton and 
tanner Mario Villa will demonstrate their work. 

Newly constructed and furnished offices of the Raymond Foundation, the De- 
partment of Planning and Development, the Division of Public Relations and the 
Women's Board will be open for members' inspection. 

Throughout the day, the blue and white flag of the Republic of Guatemala, with 
its quetzal bird crest, will be flown beside the stars and stripes in front of the Museum. 


The October 27-November 12 Guatemala Tour has been filled and a later tour, 
equal in every respect, has been scheduled for November 17-December3. Others who 
wish to make the trip may write Guatemala Tour, Field Museum, for reservations. 

Pages APRIL 



Roosevelt Rd. & Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, Illinois 60805 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1893 

Lester Armour 
Harry O. B ere her 
William McCormick Blair 
Bowen Blair 

William _R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Joseph N. Field 
Marshall Field 
Paul W. Goodrich 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Samuel Insull, Jr. 
Henry P. Isham 
Hughslon M. McBain 
Remick McDowell 
J. Roscoe Miller 
William H Mitchell 
James L. Palmer 
John T. Pirie, Jr. 
John Shedd Reed 
John G. Searle 
John M. Simpson 
Gerald A. Sivage 
Edward Byron Smith 
William Swartchild, Jr. 
Louis Ware 
E. Leland Webber 
J. Howard Wood 


Walter J. Cummings 
William V. Kahler 


James L. Palmer, President 
Clifford C. Gregg, First Vice-President 
Joseph N. Field, Second Vice-President 
Bowen Blair, Third Vice-President 
Edward Byron Smith, 

Treasurer arui Assistant Secretary 
E. Leland Webber, Secretary 


E. Leland Webber 


Donald Collier, 

Department of Anthropology 
Louis 0. Williams, 

Department oj Botany 
Rainer .^angerl. 

Department of Geology 
Austin L. Rand, 

Department oJ ^oology 


Edward G. Nash, Managing Editor 

Beatrice Paul, Associate Editor, graphics 


.*«" *Xj^,V, .'«?%' 

«*i^*fi^A^ ^'i'-^jov 




. 7f 




^f' -'"■^."■:^\'', '-':-^''w- :.r'^*?^r' 

., Number 5 May, 1967 

Bird of 

the Mangrove Swam% 

by Michelle B. Grayson, Research Assistant, Bird; 

Young Hoaizins are helped in 

climbing through the trees by finger claws 

on their wings, right; they lose the 

claws as adults. 

Far right; a yiestling eats 

partially digested food. The 

baby bird puts 

its bill into the mouth 

of the parent 

to get its meal. 


Illustrated by Tibor Peren 

CCASIONALLY, WHILE POKING through collcctions or browsing in the literature, one uncovers some 
fact so fresh and exciting that he breaks his routine to share it with others. For me, such a discovery 
was the Hoatzin. Few people would classify this bird as beautiful. It is certainly not graceful or 
colorful; nor unusually large or powerful, but unquestionably unique. From appearance to habits it ranks 
alone. The Hoatzin (family Opisthocomidae) is a sedentary bird of the heavily-wooded river banks and 
permanently flooded forests along overgrown river banks of South America. The Amazon is considered 
the center of distribution although Hoatzins occur from Guiana and Brazil to Colombia and Bolivia. These 
birds can exist only where certain marshy plant foods are available. They eat the tough leaves, flowers 
and fruits of these plants as well as small animals (fish or crabs) picked from the mud under the brush. 
In general appearance, they are slender birds. A little over two feet long, head to tail, they weight only 
about one and three-quarter pounds. The plumage of the back is dark brown, spotted in places with white. 
The underparts are a light rusty color. The tiny head sports a long, erect, and bristly reddish-brown crest. 
Breeding, which is apparently not restricted to a specific season of the year, occurs in colonies. The 
nests consist of simple stick platforms in the trees, usually four to fifteen feet above the water. The normal 
clutch includes two to four small yellowish eggs with pinkish spots. To feed, the almost featherless young 
put their heads into the gaping bill of the parent. The chicks are adventurous and make excursions early. 
They have, in contrast to the adults, a good grip with their feet and employ their bills in a manner similar 
to the parrots for climbing. 

When alarmed, nestlings will dive into the water. They swim on or below the surface, utilizing both 

Page 2 MAT 

their wings and feet in the process. An intruder is often un- 
able to mark the progress of these remarkable babies except 
by the periodic reappearance of pairs of watchful eyes. Later, 
with danger passed, they climb out of the water onto over- 
hanging branches. This escape, which is very suggestive of 
climbing reptiles, is aided by large temporary claws (move- 
able by special muscles and reminiscent of the wing structure 
o{ ArchaeopUryx, extinct for 150 million years) on the first 
and second fingers of the wings. The corresponding flight 
feathers of the wing are retarded. Mature birds lose these 
claws and have normal flight feathers. However, they retain 
the habit of using their wings for climbing, often breaking 
their primaries in the process. 

The single representative of its family, the Hoatzin is note- 
worthy in many respects. Systematically, it is believed to be 
closest to the quails, pheasants, and turkeys, but it retains 
many similarities to other birds ranging from the primitive 
Archaeopteryx to very advanced living birds. The digestive 
system, unlike most other birds, makes use of the crop rather 
than the gizzard for breaking up food. The resulting size 
and weight of a full crop tend to make the bird top heavy and 

cause him to crouch 
and rest his breast- 
bone, which has a 
specially -developed 
callous, against the 
perch. Adults main- 
tain their equilibri- 
um while hopping 
between branches 
by spreading their 
wings and flapping 
their tails. 

Another distinc- 
tive feature prompts 
the local name 
"stinking bird." They have a musky odor which varies with 
the season and individual. The widely-accepted rumor that 
the flesh also contains this odor accounts for the natives' ne- 
glect of the birds except for occasional medicinal purposes. 
The presence of a group of Hoatzins is heard from afar. 
Their voice is remarkable for its harshness, varying from a 
hissing screech to a grunting croak. The name "Hoatzin" is 
of pre-Colombian origin and supposedly resembles the call. 
Hoatzins are easily captured. A strong light seems to 
transfix them enough to allow a man to lift one off its perch. 
However, they do not live well in captivity. 

Their inflexible routine is illustrated by the onset of breed- 
ing with every rainy season, independent of the frequency per 
year. There is also a case of note in which several breeding 
Hoatzins returned to their nests in a fallen tree. These birds 
starved to death while others lived nearby in growing trees. 
So far, these birds have not been exploited. They have 
been allowed to remain obscure because no real use has been 
discovered for them. Useful or not, they too are beginning 
to feel the effects of civilization. Their already limited en- 
vironment is dwindling and, therefore, man is their greatest 
though most unintentional predator. 



On Sunday, May 21st at 3 p.m.. Dr. Jose Luis Franco C, a 
Mexican archaeologist, will give an illustrated lecture at the 
Museum on the pre-Hispanic music of Mexico. 

Dr. Franco has spent many years studying the archaeol- 
ogy and the ancient writings of Mexico to understand the 
systems of pictographic writing developed by the Olmecs, 
Mayans, Zapotecs, and the Aztecs. As part of his general 
interest in the living culture of Middle America as it existed 
iieforc the Spanish conquest. Franco specialized in the music 
of that period and has become one of the outstanding experts 
on the pre-Hispanic music of Mexico. 

By consulting the works of Fray Bernardino de Sahagun 
and other Spanish observers who wrote shortly after the con- 
quest he was able to learn much about the Indian schools of 
music, the part that music played in pre-Hispanic culture, 
and even to get an idea of how the music sounded. 

Pre-conquest sources such as the Aztec and Mayan co- 
dices occasionally depict pre-Hispanic nuisical instruments 
and show them in use. Stone and clay representations of 
musical instruments are numerous and there are a surprising 
number of drums, flutes, whistles and raspers that have sur- 
vived from pre-Hispanic times. It is possible to play the clay 
and bone flutes and the rattles and bells that have been exca- 
vated from archaeological sites. Dr. Franco has mastered 
several of these instruments during the course of his studies. 

The music of ancient Mexico was an important part of the 
festivals held several times each limar month to honor the 
gods. The rhythm of the music was carried by voices singing 
in monosyllables and polysyllables in cadence with the instru- 
ments. This use of a repetitive mixture of syllables to keep 
time was quite common, but there were also songs that told 
a story. 

Pre-Hispanic musical instruments include both percus- 
sion and wind instruments. One of the largest and most im- 
portant of the percussion instruments was the huehuell, an 
upright drum made of a hollow log topped with a skin drum- 
head which stood waist high to the player. This instrument 
was accompanied by the teponaztli, a smaller hollowed log 
set on its side and played by striking the square tongues of 
wood that almost cover the "H"-shaped orifice of this instru- 
ment. The two tongues were of different length, which re- 
sulted in giving each a different pitch. Fortunately, several 
examples of both kinds of drum survive from the time of the 
Spanish conquest. These instruments are still being used to- 
day in the state of Tlaxcala and elsewhere in central Mexico. 
A third type of drum was made of pottery and had a skin head. 

The wind instruments included flutes, ocarinas, whistles, 
and trumpets. These were made of bone, pottery, shell, 
cane or wood. The numerous raspers, rattles and flutes un- 
earthed in Mexico make up in interest for their lack in size. 

Dr. Franco's discussion of the pre-Hispanic music will 
ofl'er a unique opportunity to learn about an important but 
little known aspect of ancient Mexican life. Dr. Franco will 
speak in the Museum Lecture Hall. Members and the 
general public are cordially invited to attend. 

- — by John Hobgood, Chicago Teachers College 

MAY Pages 



,NE OF THE con- 
sistently popu- 
lar exhibits in the 
nmseuin is the Hig- 
inbothain Hall of 
Gems. The gem 
specimens in it con- 
sist both of faceted 
or carved stones and 
examples of the 
rough starting mate- 
rial minerals from 
wlucli gems arc fashioned. Although we exhibit a large num- 
ber of small stones of a few carats or less (there are roughly 
140 carats to an ounce), we attempt, whenever possible, to 
obtain larger stones of 10 carats and up to provide spectacu- 
lar examples of the gems themselves as well as the gem cutter's 
art. Over the years the public has come to expect specimens 


on exhibit as good examples of rough stones. Generally, the 
thought was always in mind that some day some of these 
rough stones should be faceted, although we were never cer- 
tain just how this would be accomplished. Then in 1963, 
through a series of fortunate coincidences, the museum made 
arrangements with Mr. Walter Kean of Riverside, Illinois to 
cut, initially, a large rough specimen of kunzite, which had 
been acquired two years earlier. 

Mr. Kean is not a professional gem cutter. He is, in fact, 
a radio engineer and heads a consulting engineering firm 
which works primarily with the design of output antennas for 
broadcasting stations. Gem faceting is a hobby he started in 
1961, teaching himself on homemade equipment. After two 
years of self training and experimentation he entered his first 
competition, the Chicago Lapidary Club-Chicago Park Dis- 
trict annual show. His entries won him trophies for the best 
faceting work and the best master exhibit. He received the 
same awards again in 1964, and in 1965 he entered the mid- 

Above, Research Associate Walter Kean holds huge topaz he faceted for Field Museum. 
1,413 carats. Below, diagrams of Standard cuts used by gem cutters, and photos 

of extraordinary beauty and size in the major museums of the 
world, and indeed a museum is generally the only place where 
large stones are to be seen at all, excepting the few remaining 
crown jewel exhibits scattered aroimd the world. 

One of the major problems for museum gem collections 
today is that of getting large gemstones cut and faceted. For 
many reasons commercial gem cutting companies do not care 
to handle very large stones, and even if they could be induced 
to cut them the cost would be prohibitively high. 

Over the years the Field Museum has slowly acquired a 
number of rough gems of moderate to large size. Some of 
these were added to the study collections and others were put 

west regional competition which is run annually by the Mid- 
west Federation of Gem and Mineral Societies. In this he 
received a ribbon for the best work in the masters' class, and 
a trophy for the best faceting of the whole show. Since 1963 
Mr. Kean has faceted an impressive array of stones for the 
museum: Kunzite — 63.5 carats. Tourmaline — 13.3 carats. 
Topaz — 91.0 carats, Kunzite — 294.8 carats, Orthoclase — 8.0 
carats, Aquamarine — 9.1 carats. Beryl — 169.7 carats. Aqua- 
marine — 11.0 carats. Beryl — 117.0 carats. 

Added to this list just recently is a giant, flawless white 
topaz which weighs 1413 carats (about two-thirds of a pound). 
This particular piece came from a rough stone which had 

Page 4 MAY 


been in the mineral collection for 45 years and was not con- 
sidered to be of gem quality. Mr. Kean ran across it quite 
by accident and thought it had "possibilities" (see photo). 
It is the largest stone he has ever attempted to cut and the 
results are spectacular. This piece will be on exhibit in the 
Hall of Gems. 

His remarkable success in gem faceting in just these few 
years is undoubtedly due to the fact that he has approached 
this work more as an engineering problem than a strictly ar- 
tistic one. In reality, gem faceting is not an art in the ac- 
cepted sense as it applies to painting, sculpture or music. A 
painter, for instance, attempts to capture a mood or thought 
— if he is too literal in the technique he uses, he may be ac- 
cused of being photographic and not truly artistic. In the 
cutting of gem stones, however, there is no great latitude in 
technique. A gemstone has a number of physical character- 
istics which, in themselves, can aid or hamper the faceting. 
The cutter cannot ignore them. Gem garnets, for example. 

Walter Kean approaches each stone as a unique problem. 
He rarely uses formulas, but designs each stone around its 
own color, refraction index, natural flaws, and size. He 
works with home made equipment by choice. When he be- 
gan cutting stones, he looked over the existing manufactured 
equipment and was not happy with what he saw. Most of it 
was not precise enough for extremely precise work. So Mr. 
Kean designed and made his own equipment, doing a great 
deal of the machining necessary. He also modified some 
commercial equipment to gain the tolerances he needed for 
close work. 

The results of all this care are truly remarkable. The best 
example of his precision approach can be seen by comparing 
standard faceting with his work in the Hall of Gems. 
We have on exhibit two specimens of gem orthoclase, both 
from the same mine in Madagascar. One, a 5.6 carat stone, 
was commercially faceted; the other, eight carats, by Walter 
Kean. The difference is startling. The first stone is rcla- 

e stone, pictured at right and on the cover, weighs 
uncut gem-stones in the Museum's collection. 

have a deep wine red color, often so intense that faceted 
stones which are thicker than a fraction of an inch appear 
black. Such stones demand a very shallow cut, just to allow 
light through. 

.All gems have an optical characteristic called the index 
of refraction. How high or low this value may be governs 
the angles which the many facets make with each other. A 
stone faceted with the wrong angles for its index of refraction 
will look dead no matter how fine a polish the cutter may 
give it. It would be quite possible to cut the finest diamond 
in the world and make it look like a piece of glass, by using 
the wrong set of angles. 

tively dull and pale yellow. Kean's stone shows a gleaming 
array of colors and a brilliant polish. 

Besides cutting gemstones for the museum, Mr. Kean has 
been instrumental in our acquisition of a number of rough 
stones as well as the giant blue Chalmers Topaz (5890 carats), 
which was acquired already faceted. In recognition of the 
services he has performed for the museum, Mr. Kean has just 
been appointed to the honorary position of Associate in Min- 
eralogy in the Department of Geology. Thus, our museum 
is at last in the enviable position of having a resident gem 
cutter, which means the gem collection will be able to grow 
actively over the coming years. 

MAT Pages 


<Fie!d Museum archaeoiogists work in "wickiup" 

similar to pit houses found at Hay Hotlow»> 


Map at left locates a 20 square mile section of Navajo Country, 
the location of Hay Hollow and other excavation sites. Carbon-l-ii 
sand years. The dry stream bed fills only after heavy rains. Th(,| 
500 feet above the valley floor. At top is a section of Hay ki 
cooking and storage pits. Most pits were three feet deep. The | 

Page 6 MAT 

nil. The enlarged aerial perspective view of it (above) shows 
c es indicate that the valley was inhabited for some two thou- 
 le in the background is an ancient lava flow. The ridge rises 
I V Site itself, showing three of the bouses found, and various 
J es, all facing east were 15 feet in diameter. 

lyil' <*»^N!!WR!»'-«*««>»'^M»^\*^&^ *^ ^^VS/.s^v^*f*Mw\^ 

'*w,*vfl,yvwy ^'*^ -^/^v  

by PAUL S. MARTIN, Chief Curator Emeritus, Anthropology 

r~\ BOUT 2,000 YEARS AGO, in eastern Arizona, a small 
/ A \ group of Indians was wresting a living from a fonnid- 
/ li \ able and arid area. Their living pattern was centuries 
LrVJlold, for their forefathers had hunted big mammals — 
mastodons, horses, camels — and probably had eaten nuts, 
berries, seeds and roots. When the big game became extinct, 
they hunted smaller animals — deer, mountain sheep, rabbits 
— and continued to gather and eat wild plant foods. Some- 
time prior to a.d. 1, they had heard about planting seeds 
(corn) to produce food; and they had begun in a dilatory 
fashion to experiment with this novelty. Eventually, the use 
of this new plant profoundly modified the way of life of all 
later Indians. 

This, in capsule form, was what we knew or thought we 
knew about Hay Hollow Valley, eastern Arizona, in 1963. 
Our suppositions were based on our knowledge of the cul- 
tural history of the area and on our comprehensive examina- 
tion of the valley. 

Since 1963, we have been seeking new directions and val- 
ues for our archaeological researches. One of our chief aims 
was to discover, trace and describe the evolution of the social 
and cultural development in a restricted area. 

The catch-all phrase "social and cultural" means: man's 
adaptation to his total environment, social and physical; his 
ability to adjust to changes in the environment; his social in- 
stitutions, such as rules of marriage, definition of kin-folks, 
connections — blood and social — between persons and fam- 
ilies; rules of descent and inheritance; inventory of artifacts — 
tools of stone, bone and of fired clay (pottery); methods 
of making artifacts and their functions; houses; places o 
worship; ritual; clothing; foods and methods of preparing — 
and so on. In short, it includes everything man does, thinks, 
creates. One may say that this is culture and one might or- 
ganize these categories into three segments, the economic, 
social, and religious subsystems. If any segment of this deli- 
cately balanced articulation of components is disturbed by 
change of climate, by warfare, by movements of people, by any 
demand or strain, the other subsystems or segments probably 
will also change accordingly. 

To work out the social-cultural system in this little valley, 
we had first to examine the valley with care and to determine 
the chronological spread, the geographical boundaries, and 
the range of cultural diversity as represented by sites. 

This we have done in part. We know the valley was first 
settled by 1000 B.C. or earlier, inhabited continuously until 
a.d. 1350, at which time it was abandoned. The valley is 
roughly 20 miles long and from 2 to 10 miles wide. The cul- 
tural variability ranges from hamlets occupied seasonally 
by hunters and gatherers through villages of pit-houses, 
through villages of a few surface contiguous rooms to very 

MAY Page 7 

large villages of contiguous rooms several stories in height. 

We have excavated and reported on two of the larger, 
latest villages; we are now engaged in investigating the earlier 
end of the time scale. For the past two summers, we have con- 
centrated on Hay Hollow Site, occupied between 200 b.c. 
and A.D. 200 by a hunting-gathering folk who were in the 
process of adopting and adapting to corn agriculture. The 
work has been done with the support of National Science 
Foundation and National Science Foundation Undergradu- 
ate Participation Program. 

Although analyses are incomplete and conclusions ten- 
tative. I should like to give you a glimpse of what we found 
and what we think about it. 

This ancient village is located on a gently sloping terrace 
or shelf that stands about 30 feet above the Valley floor. The 
Valley was once watered by a permanent stream, but now 
carries water to its parent stream, the Little Colorado River, 
only during and after heavy snow or rain. 

The crude huts that once sheltered the himters-gatherers 
were protected from the violent wintry winds by a pink, 
shaggy sandstone cliff some 60 feet in height. Scattered about 
at the bottom of this rocky outcropping are huge roundish 
boulders that look as if they had been tumbled there by giants. 

The countryside was pleasing, and although arid, was not 
a barren, sandy wasteland. On the contrary, pinyon and 
juniper trees were common and although not more than 
twenty feet in height, presented a pleasing contrast to the 
pink and gray cliffs. Near the stream grew wild walnut trees 
and willows, the bark of which could have been used to make 
a brew with aspirin-like characteristics. The average annual 
rainfall was 13 inches. 

The reddish soil produced a score or more of wild plants 
and grasses, most of which the Indians utilized for food, medi- 
cine, or dye. A few of the more common plants still present 
in the area are barberry, beargrass, goose-foot, groundcherry, 
Indian rice grass, mallow, mountain tea {Ephedra), plants of 
the mustard family, saltbush, sagebrush, squawbush, yucca. 

In the Valley were several other contemporary villages 
similar to ours, hence social contacts were available. 

This, then, was the scene of primitive human activities 
some 2,000 years ago — a valley where water was available, 
game present, with an abundance of vegetal foods waiting to 
be harvested, wood for constructing houses and for use in 
fires, and stones of all varieties from which tools and imple- 
ments could be fashioned. 

The village 2,000 years later, as we first saw it, was recog- 
nized as an "early" site only because of the well-trained, 
sharp eyes of the observers. The tell-tale signs were occa- 
sional slabs of sandstone reddened by fire, bits and pieces of 
chipped flint, chunks of tough igneous rocks that were bat- 
tered, large boulders that had been transported to the site 
by man to be used as cores from which usable flakes could be 
struck, and portions of milling stones. No sign of a house or 
of pottery. 

Now, two years and thousands of man-hours later, we 
know a great deal about the physical appearance of the site, 
and a little later we shall be able to make statements con- 
cerning the social life and order of the village. 

A random sample of 60% of the entire site was examined 
and excavated and 90% of all features (houses, firepits, stor- 
age pits, charcoal stains) were completely excavated. All 
stone chips, stone tools, milling stones and fire-cracked rock 
were saved and taken to our field headquarters for weighing, 
measuring, classifying, description and tabulation. Samples 
of dirt from which fossil pollen might be extracted were taken 
from 200 key spots. All pieces of charcoal were salvaged by 
means of tweezers and wrapped in heavy aluminum foil to 
prevent contamination. Twenty-two chunks were sent to a 
laboratory for carbon 14 dating. 

If you had visited the site while work was in progress, you 
might have been disappointed. Indeed, some of our visitors 
asked "where is it?" You would have seen piles of sifted 
dirt, stakes, holes, pits, rocks, leveled-off places and charcoal- 
stained areas. But out of this apparent chaos, we have ob- 
tained an amazing amount of significant data. 

Preliminary analyses suggest that most of the features fall 
into three major clusters, each separated from the others by 
one hundred feet or so. Each cluster contains from one to 
three houses, one to three large pits (6 to 12 feet in diameter) 
and many smaller pits, some of which served as hearths and 
some as storage chambers. The firepits and general refuse 
areas all lie downwind from the houses. 

Each house was round, about 1 6 feet in diameter, and was 
provided with a saucer-like dirt floor, the center slightly lower 
than the rim. Around the rim or edge, juniper or pinyon- 
wood poles were set in holes. The poles were placed about 
6 inches apart and leaned slightly toward the center of the 
house. We are not sure just how these poles were fastened at 
the top-side. It may be that they were tied together like 
those of a tepee, leaving a small smoke hole where all the poles 
met; or the poles may have been slightly arched and fastened 
to a superstructure so as to form a dome-like hut. In this case, 
the house would have resembled a contemporary Apache 
wickiup. W^e tend toward this latter interpretation, although 
we are guessing. 

The interstices between the upright poles were chinked 
with grass, brush and mud, very much like the chinking in 
early American log cabins. Great hunks of this chinking were 
actually found on house floors. The chinking was mud, leav- 
ing the imprint of grass, fingerprints, brush and twigs, and 
preserved by great heat. In other words, when the house was 
destroyed by fire (and they had all burned), the chinking 
was roasted to brick-like color and consistency! This kind 
of construction is called "wattle and daub," or by the Spanish 
term, jacal. 

The Indians entered the house by crawling through a 
roofed tunnel about 6 feet long. The covered entryway al- 
ways opened toward the east and was roofed and walled by 
means of wattle and daub. The floor of the tunnel sloped 
slightly downward toward the center of the house. It is prob- 
able, although the evidence for this is not too good, that the 
eastern or outer end of the tunnel could be closed by means 
of upright slab-doors or a skin portiere. As the crawling vis- 
itor to the house reached the house — or west end of the tunnel 
— he would have been confronted by a two-foot-high parti- 
tion made of upright slabs that curved in a gentle spiral 

Pages MAT 

The drawing at right shows how a prehistoric 
"wickiup" might have looked. Pit houses were 
constructed with a series of posts in a circle. 
The posts were pulled together into a dome shape 
and covered. The covering material used at 
Hay Hollow was most probably mud daub. 
All of the houses found at Hay Hollow had 
been destroyed by fire. 

Uj v^^JJ^JE-J*** 


Examples of Southwest Indian stone tools., all 
taken from Hay Hollow Site. Large stone at 
top is a typical core, from which flakes are 
struck (right). These flakes are then shaped 
into various tools. Lower row, left to right, a 
scraper, used on wood, bone and skins; a 
wedge, for splitting bone or wood; a projectile 
point, for hunting; a graver, for carving designs 
and personal marks on stone, wood and bone; 
and a knife, used for cutting meat and leather. 
The tools shown came from different cores, 
some flint, others quartzile. Relative frequencies 
of tools in a specific area of the site may give 
clues to the function of that area; thus, presence 
of cores, flakes, and debris may indicate that 
the area was a tool manufacturing area; pres- 
ence of both knives and scrapers might indicate 
a food and skin processing area. 




toward the rear, leaving a space just wide enough to accom- 
modate a thin person. This partition was placed there as a 
kind of deflector to keep cold draughts from striking and scat- 
tering the embers of the fire or from chilling the occupants. 

The interior furnishings of the house were simplicity itself; 
a small fire hearth, a few covered food storage pits, a milling 
stone or two, a few stone knives and perhaps several skins that 
served as cushions or blankets. 

It may be of interest to note that all houses of this type as 
well as all later pit houses in the Southwest were provided 
with east-facing tunnel entrances and with deflectors. In fact, 
the ventilator tunnel and shaft found in almost all southwest- 
ern kivas (religious structures) of later times evolved from the 
earlier entry-tunnel and likewise opened toward the east or 
southeast. Further, almost all kivas were supplied with de- 
flectors — some of which were painted. 

Near the east or outer opening of the house tunnel were 

two firepits. These may have been used for household cook- 
ing since the interior hearth was used exclusively for heat 
or light. 

Each cluster of houses was adjacent to several large pits 
and many smaller ones. The large ones may have been fur- 
nished with pine boughs and furry skins and in these some of 
the family may have slept as do the contemporary Apache 
Indians. Conversely, they might have served as barbecue 
pits or for food storage. 

The numerous smaller pits were undoubtedly used in con- 
nection with cookery of some kind. Some may have been 
utilized for "cooking" flint rock or to put it more elegantly, 
for thermal treatment of flint cores. 

Don Crabtree, of Idaho State Museum, Pocatello, Idaho 
has demonstrated that untreated flint (chert) is fractious and 
difficult to flake. Long, slow thermal treatment (48 hours or 
more) and slow cooling of raw, unworked flint nodules makes 

MAT Page 9 

thciii glassy in appearance and as easily worked or chipped as 
glass or obsidian (volcanic glass). Natural glass is the easiest 
of all rocks from which chipped or flaked implements (arrow- 
points and the like) may be made. An expert can detect a 
thermal-treated flint tool at a glance. 

By means of tedious counting, classifying and even weigh- 
ing of over 50,000 worked or chipped pieces of flint, of over 
thousands of fire-cracked sandstone slabs, of tough igneous- 
rock hammers, of milling stones, of pottery fragments, so that 
the distribution of the frequencies of each tooltype could 
be plotted on site maps, we have an excellent idea of the 
village's "activity-structure." By this, I mean the kinds of 
work programs that were carried on and where the work was 
actually accomplished and who did it. This type of informa- 
tion is essential if we wish to make statements about how the 
village was organized for doing certain jobs and who was in- 
volved in this organization. This, in turn, gives us clues 
about the social organization. 

The artifacts were distributed spatially in a non-random 
manner. That is to say the various tools were not scattered 
in a haphazard way but, rather, were left more or less exactly 
where the people used the tools and left them. We are fairly 
certain that certain tasks were almost always accomplished 
in prescribed places. It follows, then, that when we find a 
clustering of a tool type in a specific area, we have found the 
area in which a particular job was done. 

Potsherds (broken pieces of pottery) are a good example. 
Potsherds are chiefly associated with hearth areas. This dis- 
tribution indicates that pottery was used primarily for cook- 
ing and not for storage. Two more facts about the pottery 
strengthen this hypothesis: all the sherds are sooty, and the 
vessels are of so small a size as to almost preclude the possi- 
bility of their use as storage containers. Incidentally, this 
pottery may be among the earliest in the Southwest, be- 
cause it was surely present at 400 B.C. or earlier. 

Other examples of clusterings of tool types are 1) milling 
stones were found only in or near houses. Since reducing 
seeds and other foods to flour or paste is the job of women in 
most documented "primitive" societies, it seems likely that 
milling was done by women in or near houses; 2) tools em- 
ployed for cutting, sawing, hacking, and scraping occurred in 
large numbers in the vicinity of smaller roasting pits. This 
correlation indicates, at the minimum, that butchering and 
cutting of carcasses and scraping of skins for clothing were 
carried on near hearths; 3) an aggregation of the bases or 
stem-ends of projectile points and quantities of stone flakes 
suggested the area in which the men of the group manufac- 
tured projectile points. After a hunt, spear or arrow shafts 
were brought home for re-use. If the tip of the projectile 
point had broken off when striking and wounding the game, 
the basal portion would remain in the shaft and could be re- 
placed by a new point. 

The location of the work areas is thus spotted by plotting 
the frequency distributions of each tool type and this is made 
possible by having "control" of the find-spot of each chip, 
artifact and sherd. 

Now, from these data what can we say about the social 
units that performed tasks necessary for the day-to-day survival 

of the group? At the moment, only a few suggestive hypoth- 
eses can be made. Our analyses must proceed further before 
we can say more. 

Each house probably housed a single family — father, 
mother, and 2 or 3 children. The residence pattern was prob- 
ably neo-local. This term implies that upon marriage, the 
newlyweds built a new house. This is in contrast to the hus- 
band taking up residence with his wife's family (matrilocal) 
or the wife, with her husband's family (patrilocal). Cooking 
was mostly done outside by means of stone-boiling, by roast- 
ing, or by barbecuing. We don't know if the families living 
in each cluster were related by blood, or brought together by 
similar work tasks. 

Up to this point, I have merely described the site, our 
findings, and our tentative hypotheses. I have dealt ex- 
clusively with events, details and particulars. As a basis for 
further studies, these particulars are important; but we must 
take the next steps, the first one of which is to generalize 
from these details. We are eager to go on to discuss the cul- 
tural process, which is one of the goals of anthropology. 

When our analyses are complete, we will possess a set or 
a network of functionally related culture elements, like 
building blocks all put together, articulated in working 
order to produce a whole-a system. The structural units of 
our system comprise some of the things I have mentioned : 
type and size of house and its relation in space to other 
houses; cooking and storage pits; kinds of tools and pottery; 
foods and methods of preparing; specific areas where cer- 
tain tasks were carried on; division of labor; probable com- 
position of work groups and of social organization; and 
forces that intergrated the people into a functioning society. 

This is a system as seen at a single point in time, and must be 
formulated before we can make comparisons or deal with 
culture processesand regularities or"laws" — our ultimate goal . 

A process involves change with continuity; a process is 
the study of how a "system" at 2,000 years ago is transformed 
into a diff"erent "system" at A. D. 500 or A. D. 1 ,000 or at any 
later point in time. Process, then, represents views of cul- 
tural patterns vmdergolng change. It is like a movie with 
one frame (a system at a single point in time) succeeding 
another. The viewing of this movie is basic to our task. But 
it is not all. 

Our final goal is to seek trends and causes of human be- 
haviour. Culture exhibits certain lawfulness — it is not 
irregular or capricious. If we study events (systems, culture 
processes) with the view of discovering their regularities, we 
shall perceive that cultures behave in accordance with fixed 
and universal laws. By "law," I mean a statement of a con- 
stant relationship between two or more classes of phenomena 
under stated conditions. For example, the more adapted and 
and specialized a culture, the less adaptable it becomes. 
Hence, its downfall is a probable outcome of its successes, 
as in dynastic Egypt. 

It will be some years before we can formulate the laws 
from our Hay Hollow Valley data. They will be the pro- 
duct of many students working together and pooling their 
efforts. All we can claim now is that we have made a 
strong beginning. 

Page 10 MAT 

Missionaries as Collectors 

by Christopher C. Legge, Custodian of Collections, Anthropology 
and Patricia M. Williams 

NONE OF THE Pacific missionaries of Michener and 
Maugham is more interesting than John Williams, 
James Calvert and Dr. Richard Burdsall Lyth. In addition 
to fulfilling their mission work, each of these men made valu- 
able ethnological collections, specimens of which are in the 
Museum's outstanding Fuller Collection. 

According to the Dictionary of National Biography, John 
Williams, 1796-1839, ". . . was the most successful missionary 
of modern times. He acquired the languages and adapted 
himself to the varying characters of the races he encountered 
in a manner most remarkable for a man of his defective edu- 
cation." Williams was sent to the Pacific in 1817 by the 
London Missionary 
Society and made his 
permanent headquar- 
ters at Raiatea in the 
Society Islands Group. 
He became an active 
and ambitious mission- 
ary of many accom- 
plishments. In 1819 
he introduced sugar 
cane into Tahiti and 
erected a cane mill. In 
1827 at Raratonga in 
the Austral Group, 
Williams built The 
Messenger of Peace, an 
80-ton ship. This was 
a particularly ingeni- 
ous feat as he had no 
iron nails, saws or other proper tools. (The ships of the Lon- 
don Missionary Society have sailed under the name John 
Williams since 1844. The vessel presently in service is the 
John Williams VII.) Williams translated the New Testament 
into Raratongan and in 1 834 he returned to England to have 
his translation published. His Narrative of Missionary Enter- 
prise in the South Seas was published in 1837. 

Williams then returned to the Pacific only to meet a grisly 
fate. He was killed and eaten by the natives of Eromango 
Island in the New Hebrides. Presumably, his murder was 
committed in retaliation for cruelties inflicted upon the na- 
tives by a party of sandal-wood traders. 

There are three specimens originally collected by Wil- 
liams in the Museum's Fuller Collection : a fishhook from the 
Society Islands, a Tahitian headrest and a Samoan coconut- 
stalk club. The large, barbless hook is made of black-lipped 
pearl shell, with sennet fiber binding attached. Originally, 
Williams presented the hook to his biographer. Rev. Ebe- 
nezer Prout, F.G.S. The four-legged headrest is cut out of 
one piece of light brown wood. The Samoan club is of light 
brown wood covered with incised designs. An old manu- 
script tag attached to the club reads: "This club was brought 

back to England in 1834 by John Williams, Missionary — 'the 
Martyr of Eromango'." 

James Calvert, 1813-1892, was one of the first Methodist 
Missionaries in the Fiji Islands. He arrived in the Fijis in 
1838 when he was 25 years old and remained until he was 43. 
He was co-author, with Rev. Thomas Williams, of Fiji and 
the Fijians. Williams wrote Volume I devoted to the islands 
and their inhabitants, and Calvert wrote Volume 1 1 on mis- 
sion history. 

The Fuller Collection houses three specimens from Cal- 
vert's collection. The first is a headrest from Tahiti made of 
dark wood. It is in three sections — the bar is the Fijian type 

and the supports are 
like those of Tonga. 
The second specimen 
is a throwing club from 
Tonga, the head of 
which is patterned 
and round in shape. 
Third in the collection 
is an intricately carved 
set of two bowls con- 
nected by a wooden 
ring. Remarkably, the 
entire set was carved 
out of one piece of dark 
brown wood. The ring 
links through a perfo- 
rated lug at the end of 
each flower-shaped 

The final member of this trio of missionaries is Dr. Rich- 
ard Burdsall Lyth, 1810-1887, who was the first qualified 
medical missionary in the Pacific. He began working in the 
Tonga Group early in 1838 and moved to the Fiji Islands the 
following year, where he stayed until 1854. He served as 
Chaplain to the British forces in Gibraltar from 1859 to 1878. 
The Museum has one piece which was collected by Dr. 
Lyth, a breast ornament from Fiji made of a single gold or 
orange cowrie shell with a hole piercing one side. This shell 
is the rare Callistocypraea aurantium (Gmelin). When Fuller 
obtained the specimen about 1 905 there was a small note in 
it which, in part, reads: "The Orange Cowrie is only found 
at one spot in the world viz on the reef of Nadroga (from Na- 
ndro-nga with accent on last syll.) or Flying Duck, S. W. of 
Viti Levu, Fiji Is. Specimens with a hole in them have been 
worn by the betes or priest while performing solemn acts of 
divination under the inspiration of their gods. The shells 
were always oiled on these occasions as were also the bodies 
of the betes. This specimen has been so used and treated. 
From Rev. R. B. Lyth. Rev. J. Nettleson" This information 
is incorrect insofar as the cowrie may be found in other parts 
of the Pacific. 

MAY Page U 


A c;R.\Nr (IF $7,100 has been awarded to Field Museum by the newly established 
National Foundation on The Arts and The Humanities. The grant will support 
a project under the direction of James W. \'anStone, Curator of North American 
Archaeology and Ethnology, entitled "Ethnography and Recent Prehistory of the 
Nushagak River Eskimos, Alaska." These Eskimos live in southwest Alaska in 
an area first penetrated by the Russians in the early 19th century. Since that time, 
the Eskimos of the area have had more or less continuous contact with western 
civilization through missionaries, miners, the fishing industry and government 
services. Mr. \'anStone will investigate the culture of these Eskimos as it was be- 
fore western contact, and the changes in their society as a result of more than a 
century of contact. "An Annotated Ethnohistorical Bibliography" of the previous 
work done on these Eskimos has already been accepted for publication by Field 
Musevim Press in the series Fieldiana: Anthropology. The bibliography will be the 
first of several monographs planned by Mr. VanStone on the people of the Nusha- 
gak River area. 

The general mission of the National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities 
is to bring the American public into a more meaningful contact with the humanis- 
tic traditions; accordingly, the Foundation is encouraging museums involved in the 
study and preservation of these traditions. Field Museum has entered into an in- 
tern program with the Foundation, to train Museum curators of small museums 
in the techniques and skills necessary for the most effective preservation, restoration 
and exhibition of collections, as well as to give an insight into the relation of these 
collections with the traditions of human society. Field Museum participates in this 
program, one of the first established by the new Foundation, along with nearly a 
dozen other Museums throughout the country, including the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, the University Museum, University of Pennsylvania, and the New York State 
Historical Association. 


Specialists on birds and handicraft from Guatemala will help make Field Muse- 
um's Guatemala Tours, October 27-November 12 and November 17-December 3, 
more informative. Arrangements have been completed recently for Dr. Jorge 
Ibarra, Director of the National Museum of Natu- 
ral History in Guatemala City, Editor of the nat- 
ural history and conser\-ation magazine, Historia 
Natural Y Pronatura, and Central America's leading 
ornithologist, to accompany the Field Museum 
Tour groups on bird walks near Lake Atitlan and 
to address them on Guateman birds. 

Dofia Lilly de Jongh Osborne, author of books 
about Guatemala and its handicrafts, will meet 
the groups at dinner in Antigua and will speak to 
them following dinner. Born in Costa Rica and a 
resident of Guatemala City since 1905, Doiia Lilly 
is generally regarded as the leading authority on Indian handicrafts in Guatemala 
and El Salvador. She is the author of Indian Crafts of Guatemala and El Salvador and, 
together with Vera Kelsey, of Four Keys to Guatemala. Her collection of Guate- 
malan costumes and textiles is famous. 

Other Tour specialists include Dr. Wilson Popenoe, Horticulturist of Antigua, 
and, accompanying the tour. Dr. Antonio Molina, Botanist of Escuela .-^gricola 
Panamericana in Honduras, Phil Clark, Garden Editor of The News of Mexico and 
Tour Leader, Dr. Donald Collier, Field Museum Chief Curator of Anthropology, 
and Dr. Malcolm Collier, former Assistant Editor of The American Anthropologist. 
Talks on life in Guatemala by Dona Carmen de Pettersen, and on coffee growing 
by Don Hugh Craggs, both plantation owners, also will be featured 

Further information may be obtained by writing Guatemala Tour, Field 

Page 12 MAY 


Museum open 9 a.m. to 6 p.m. every day 

May 15 - June 30 

American Medicine Before Columbus 
One hundred small clay sculptures 
from tombs of ancient Middle America, 
on loan from the collection of Dr. Abner 
I. Weisman. The two-and-a-half-cen- 
tury-old human figures indicate physical 
ailments and their surprisingly sophisti- 
cated treatment in pre-Columbian times. 
In Hall 9 Gallery. 

May 20 

Chicago Area Science Fair 

Best of the student science projects; 
display sponsored by Chicago Area 
Teachers Science Association. In 
Stanley Field Hall. 

May 21 


The Music of Ancient Mexico 

Noted Mexican archaeologist. Dr. 
Jose Luis Franco lectures on Aztec mu- 
sic displaying and actually playing in- 
struments recovered from Aztec tombs. 
At 3 p.m. in Ground Floor Lecture Hall. 

June through August 

Summer Journey : 
Animal I.mmigrants 

Self-guided tour for young people of 
exhibits showing animals found in the 
United States, but native to other coun- 
tries. Direction sheets and information 
available at both Museum entrances 
and at information desk. 


Chicago Shell Club 

May 21 at 2 p.m. and June 11 
Illi.nois Orchid Society 

May 21 at 2 p.m. 
Illinois Audubon Society 

June 7 at 7 p.m. 
Chicago N.-\ture Camera Club 

June 1 3 at 7 : 45 p.m. 



CHICAGO. ILLINOIS 60605 A.C. 312. 922-M10 

E. Leland Webber, Director 


Edward G. Nash, Managing Editor 
Bea Paul, Associate Editor, graphics 



Volume 38 
}fumber 6 





by George Fricke, 
Raymond Foundation 

Summer Journey tells the story of animals 

introduced and naturalized in America 

Animal Immigrants is the title of the Summer Journey for 
boys and girls that will be available during the months of 
June, July, and August. 

The Journey will point out some of the common animals 
that have been introduced into America. Some of these ex- 
otics, as immigrant or alien animals are called, have become 
naturalized here; others failed to survive. 

Some birds, like the Ring-necked Pheasant and the Euro- 
pean or Gray Partridge, were introduced to provide sport. 
The Ringneck was successfully introduced in 1881 ; the Gray 
Partridge in 1908. 

The two most common and widespread of all exotics are 
the English Sparrow and the European Starling. They are 
considered by many to be pests, precisely because of their 

The English Sparrow was introduced in 1850 by Euro- 
peans who were homesick for this familiar bird. The Starling 
was introduced in 1890 by Eugene Schleifflin, a wealthy 
New York manufacturer fond of both birds and Shakespeare. 
He wanted to introduce all of the birds mentioned in Shake- 
speare's works. 

Many insects have been introduced into America, often 
by accident. The common white Cabbage Butterfly arrived 
here in the 1860's from Europe. Early colonists introduced 
the Honeybee about 300 years ago. 








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More than 77,000 boys and girls have taken Museum Journeys since the pro- 
gram was started. Heer, three young men take notes about the snow leopard of 
Central Asia. 

Two rodents accidentally introduced are the House Mouse 
and the House (Norway) Rat. Both arrived here acciden- 
tally as stowaways on ships sailing from Europe. The House 
Mouse came here soon after English colonists came to Amer- 
ica. The House Rat arrived in 1775. 

Carp were brought from Asia to Europe in historic times, 
and to America around 1880. In Europe and Asia they are 
desirable, but they are looked upon as pests in our country. 
The Carp's relative, the Goldfish, was brought over as an 
aquarium fish. People who tire of them often release them 
in lakes. 

This is only a partial list of common animal immigrants 
found in America today. A complete list would fill several 

Journey No. 50 

Animal Immigrants is Journey No. 50 in the Raymond 
Foundation's Journey program. The Journey program was 
planned to help children discover objects and items of interest 
in the Museum. The program helps children and adults to 
know how or where to enjoy the many opportunities ofTered 
in the Museum. 

Four different journeys are presented each year. Only 
80 children took the first journey, on Drums, offered in the 
Spring of 1955. Since 1955, over 17,000 have taken journeys^ 
Some take only one or two, but others complete enough to 
earn award certificates. 

An award program was set up to give some form of recog- 
nition for the children's accomplishments in the Journey 

When a child successfully completes four journeys, he re- 
ceives a Traveler's Award. When eight are completed, he 
gets an Adventurer's Award, and with 12 done, he becomes 
an Explorer. 

Upon completion of 16 journeys, which takes four years, 
the Explorer becomes a Beagler, and is presented with a copy 
of Charles Darwin's Voyage of the Beagle. Then he is ready 
for the special Journey taking him through the Museum halls 
to see some of the specimens and objects Darwin saw on his 
historic journey. 

Upon completion of this, the youngster becomes a mem- 
ber of the Museum Discoverer's Club. Some 125 children 
are either past or present members of the Museum Discov- 
erer's Club. 

Each Spring, a Traveler's Day is held in the James Simp- 
son Theatre. In April of this year, 205 children were pre- 
sented different awards. 

Journeys are offered free of charge. The program is one 
of the many functions of the Raymond Foundation, one ot- 
the Museum's educational divisions. Journeys and informav_. ' 
tion on the program can be picked up at either the North or 
South Door or at the Information Booth. 

Page 2 JUNE 


An able staff of artists use their talents to 
aid the Museum research effort. 

By Patricia M. Williams 

FIELD museum's series of scientific publications, Fieldiana, 
has long been recognized as a fine record of scientific re- 
search and achievement in the Museum's four fields of inter- 
est — Zoology, Geology, Botany and Anthropology. The 
successful presentation of this research has been due in no 
small measure to consistently excellent scientific illustration. 

Illustrations for Fieldiana have been done by staff artists, 
independent artists on commission and, occasionally, by the 
author himself. Henry Dybas, Associate Curator, Insects, 
has added technique to talent to produce many of his own 

Artistic ability has also been discovered among staff mem- 
bers engaged in other Museum work. Janet Wright, then 
Secretary to the Division of Amphibians and Reptiles, con- 
tributed many fine drawings to the publications of Dr. Rob- 
ert Inger and Mr. Hyman Marx. Mrs. Lenore Warner of 
the Department of Botany, has recently provided a number of 
..illustrations for Dr. Louis Williams' "Tropical American 
^^lants." Joan Davis Levin learned the art of scientific illus- 
tration while working as assistant to the late Dr. Dwight D. 
Davis and her work appeared in his widely acclaimed mono- 
graph "The Giant Panda." This publication was "in the 
works" for many years and the illustrations in it represent 
the work of a number of artists, one of whom had spent many 
years as an engraver. His work is easily recognized by its 
minute and exquisite detail. 

The use of color in Fieldiana is practically non-existent 
because of its high cost, therefore, most of Fieldiana'% illustra- 
tions are rendered in pen-and-ink and, occasionally, in pen- 
cil. Recently, however, several interesting variations have 
been seen. Ranier Zangerl, Chief Curator, Geology, used 
pencil on acetate for his drawings in "A New Shark of the 
Family Edestidae." Douglas Tibbitts, a former staff" artist 
now free-lancing, uses pen-and-ink in combination with a 
wash for his bird illustrations to appear in Emniett R. Blake's 
Manual of Neotropical Birds. 

As is true in all things, professional and personal, com- 
munication is a major problem for the science illustrator. For 
the scientist to adequately convey what he sees in his mind's 
eye to the artist is an often frustrating and time-consuming 
process. Once a rapport has been established between artist 
and scientist, the work can move quickly and satisfyingly for 
all involved. 
^^ The commercial artist is free to distort his subject to 
^^chieve the desired "image." For example, a car may be 
drawn longer and lower than it actually is, a refrigerator may 
appear taller and slimmer than it is in fact. Also, the com- 

Artist Marion Pahl working on an insect exhibit. Miss Pahl, 
like many artists on the staff, works in the Department of 
Exhibition, as well as doing scientific drawings, charts and 
maps for individual scientists. 

mercial illustration must frequently connote the subject's in- 
tangible qualities. .\ bottle of soda-pop must seem at once 
to be not only cold and refreshing, but zestful, youthful and 
gay, as well. 

The "popular" artist may portray a snake as an exotic, 
sinister reptile, eyes glittering with evil as it slithers sinuously 
out of the firelight into the shadows. In Fieldiana, the same 
snake would be a neatly tagged and coiled specimen carefully 
arranged to best show individual variation in scale pattern 
of the species. 

Because the illustrations in the series are meant to be used 
as aids to research and not as decorations, the artist must 
strive for faithful reproduction and absolute accuracy. A 
flower need not appear to be dew-drenched and fragrant. 
In fact, it is far better if it does not. The dewiness may im- 
ply a scientifically inaccurate texture. 

Although a scientific illustration may not be a deliberate 
expression of the artist's personality, like handwriting, it al- 
ways bears the inescapable imprint of the individual. John 
Pfiff"ner's bold, sure pen-stroke; the delicate, lace-like quality 
of Lenore Warner's botanical drawings; and the fine precision 
of Marge Moran's moUusk illustrations are all unmistakably 

Even though photographs are more quickly done and, 
therefore, less expensive, it is sometimes impossible to use this 
method. For example, an anthropologist may wish to pic- 
torially recreate a scene from the past featuring artifacts he 

JUNE Pages 

has studied; or a botanist may base the description of a new 
genus on field notes and the study of a dried plant specimen. 
A photograph of such a specimen could not adequately indi- 
cate the stamens, calyx, pistils, etc. or picture the flower as it 
appears in life. A fossil, because of its angle of projection, 
size or te.xturc may not photograph adequately for use in sci- 
entific study. 

However, the Museum's Division of Photography, under 
the leadership of John Bayalis, has long since proven that when 
photographs are used they can be enormously effective. 
Homer Holdren, who has had wide experience as a commer- 
cial photographer, brought his own style to many Fieldiana 
plates. Whenever possible he uses light and shadow to high- 
light texture, brighten a luster, create interest and, always. 
to show a specimen to its greatest advantage. 

Many of the photographs appearing in Fieldiana, espe- 
cially those taken "on location," have been taken by the 
scientists themselves. When in Borneo Dr. Robert Inger, 
Curator, Amphibians and Reptiles, rigged up a system of 
lights and wires and, using infra-red film, was able to photo- 
graph nocturnal animals in their natural habitat. Dr. Louis 
Williams, Chief Curator, Botany, has taken hundreds of pic- 
tures of Central America — a number of which have appeared 
in Fieldiana. Loren Woods, Curator, Fishes, and his ubiqui- 
tous Minox went shutter-clicking across the Indian Ocean to 
return with a pictorial record of the expedition. Hymen 
Marx, Assistant Curator, Reptiles, has made many fine pho- 
tographs of reptiles in the lab and several of these have ap- 
peared in Fieldiana. 

Whether drawings or photographs, the editors oi Fieldiana 
have always made every effort to obtain the finest plate- 
making services available to do full justice to the illustrations. 
Finally, the printers of the Museum Press, notably William 
and George Sebela, a father-son team without peer in their 
craft, use their considerable skill to assure quality on the 
printed page. 

It becomes evident, then, that excellence is the natural 
result of the care and skill spent on Fieldiana's illustrations 
from their conception in the scientist's mind to their ultimate 
printed reproduction. 

This month's Cover shows two draw- 
ings in wash and pencil by Douglas 
Tibbitts, a former Museum staff mem- 
ber who now does free-lance work for 
Emmet Blake, Curator of Birds. Tib- 
bitts is preparing the illustrations for the 
Manual of Neotropical Birds. These 
drawings represent an interesting inno- 
vation in ornithological illustration. 
The taxonomically important details of 
the bird are shown in line around a por- 
trait of the bird as it appears in life. 
Top drawing shows the California 
Quail, Lophortyx californicus; the lower 
bird is the Buff-crowned Wood-Quail, 
Dendrortyx leucophrys. 

Associate Curator of Insects Henry 
Dybas is one of several Curators at 
Field Museum who do much of their 
own artwork. Dybas is self-taught. 
Shown here is a drawing of a wing from 
a feather-wing beetle. Dybas drew the 
wing magnified 100 times. Readers 
may recall that a photograph of a simi- 
lar wing appeared on the cover of the 
BULLETIN in April 1966. 

The snail shells shown here in various 
aspects were made by Margaret Moran, 
a young artist working for Alan Solem, 
Curator of Lower Invertebrates. Miss 
Moran's technique is so painstaking, 
detailed and exact, that often, as in 
these, only a section of the shell is 

Page 4 JUNE 

John Pfiffner is a free-lance artist work- 
ing with Research Curator Philip Hersh- 
kovitz on the marmosets of South 
America. After experimenting with 
other techniques, Pfiffner settled on 
scratchboard and pencil as the best 
medium for illustrating furred monkeys. 
Slight variations in hair patterns and 
colors are systematically important in 
South American monkeys, and scratch- 
board has enabled Pfiffner to detail the 
very minute white hairs of some ani- 
mals, even against a dark skin. Along 
with its other virtues, the method is 
cheaper and faster than pen and pencil. 

Davida Simon, student at University of 
inois, works for Louis Williams, Chief 
Curator, Botany, during her vacations 
preparing illustrations for Flora of Gua- 
temala. Several other artists have pre- 
pared illustrations for this flora; in recent 
years Sam Grove, Leonore Warner and 
Davida Simon have been the principal 

Pen and ink illustrations have some 
advantage over photography. Char- 
acters that the scientist wants shown 
can be emphasized, flower shape can 
be restored, and technical characters 
shown by enlargements. 

JUNE Page 5 

Record Crowd 

AN ATTENDANCE RECORD was set for/^*^ 
Members' Night when 4,000 persons cele-^ 
brated "an evening in Guatemala" and took 
a look at scientific research, at Field Museum. 
They heard Guatemalan music, watched the 
dances of the country, sipped Guatemalan 
punches and tasted boquitas. They also 
participated in a signal event of Field Mu- 
seum Press — presentation of an issue in the 
monumental series, "Flora of Guatemala" by 
Chief Curator of Botany Louis 0. Williams to 
Mrs. Catalina Contreras de Garcia, represent- 
ing Guatemala, photo left. 

Frank Boryca, center left, explains how plas-^^ 
tic leaves and flowers are cast from botanicalf ^ 
originals. Microscopes, above, tell a surpris- 
ing story of reproduction in fungi, ferns and 
flowering plants, while a young member, left, 
confronts a giant Brown Bear, in taxidermy. 

Paged JUNE 

Enjoys Members' Night Fiesta 

Guatemalan marimbist Jose Bethancourt 
and his orchestra send a young Guate- 
malan couple swinging — Leonel Alvarado 
from San Pedro de Laguna Atitlan and 
Frieda Garcia from Antigua, top photos, 

»yvhile, above. Botany Department "Guate- 
malans" Alfeida Rehling and Valerie Con- 
nor offer market candies and tropical fruits. 
Members, lower right, admire hand- 
loomed woolen blanket. 

JUNE Page 7 

I ./I 


Museum open 9 a.m. to 6 p.m. every 
day; from June 24, open to 8 p.m. on 
Wednesday, Friday, Saturday, Sunday. 
Through June 30 Exhibit: pre-Columbian Medical Miniatures (see stor\- below) 
Through June 30 Exhibit: Handcrafted Gem and Jewelry Competitive Exhi- 
bition. Sponsored by the Chicago Lapidary Club, the exhibit features more 
than 500 prize-winning gems and pieces of jeweln,' fashioned in the Chicago area. 
July 6 Film for children: The Cambodian Jungle. Describes a small boy's life 
in the southeast Asian country. In the James Simpson Theatre, 10 and 1 1 a.m. 
July 13 Film for children: A Bit of Canada. Previews of what can be seen on 

the way to Expo '67. James Simpson Theatre, 10 a.m. and 1 p.m. 
Through August Summer Journey: Animal Immigrants. A self-guided tour for 
young people of exhibits showing animals found in the United States but native 
to other countries. Direction sheets and information available at both Mu- 
seum entrances and the information desk. 

Chicago Shell Club, June 11,2 p.m. 

N.\ture Camera Club of Chicago, June 13, 7:45 p.m. 



In May Field Museum acquired an extensive 
collection of twin figures cai-ved by the Yoruba 
people of Western Nigeria. The Yoruba, long 
noted for the complexity of their traditional 
technology, religion and art, used these statu- 
ettes primarily to house the spirits of deceased 
twins. The collection numbers sixty-nine 
items, including thirteen sets of twins. Mr. 
John Underwood, the artist, found and se- 
lected the figures during three years he spent 
in Nigeria making films for that nation's Min- 
istry of Information. Field Museum will pre- 
sent this new acquisition to the public on 
July 12. The exhibition will use supplemen- 
tary materials to direct attention to the ethno- 
logical and esthetic importance of the collec- 
tion. In conjunction with this opening Mr. 
Underwood will give an illustrated lecture on 
the ways in which twin figures express certain 
principles of Yoruba art and philosophy. 

Artist John Underwood shows E. Leland 
Webber Toruba twin statues. 


A hundred pre-Columbian miniatures, on loan from New York physician Dr. 
Abner I. Weisman, will be on display until the end of this month in the Hall 9 
Gallery of the Museum. Unearthed from tombs in Mexico and Central America, 
they illustrate a wide variety of medical conditions, such as headache, toothache, 
malnutrition, various stages of pregnancy and childbirth. 

Precisely why ancient sculptors created these statues is a mystery. Some ar- 
chaeologists claim they were buried as part of the personal treasure. Others, that 
they were designed to explain the nature of the person's illness to the gods. Dr. 
Weisman feels that they may have been used as teaching models by ancient phy- 
sicians and surgeons. 

In connection with the opening, a Symposium on "Mental Illness and Its 
Management in Ancient Times" was held at the Stone-Brandel Center of Chicago. 
Moderated by Dr. Karl Menninger, the symjjosiuni included talks by Dr. \Veis- 
man and several other experts. After the Symposium, a number of the guests 
came to Field Museum to view Dr. Weisman's collection. 


The registrar of Field Museum is a {per- 
son charged with many duties. Amory^ . 
other things, she must keep the mastlL. 
file on accessions to the collections, items 
ranging from sets of rare books to war 
canoes. She also maintains the jDerson- 
nel records on a staff" of several hundred 
people, some of whom, at any given 
time, will be living in the Bornean jun- 
gle or in an Eskimo village, or in other 
odd corners of the world, beset with 
quite different problems. 

On April 30 of this year, Miss Marion 
G. Gordon left Field Museum to take 
an early retirement. Miss Gordon, a 
graduate of the University of Illinois, 
was Registrar for 24 years, coming to the 
Museum as Assistant Registrar in 1943, 
and assuming the fiJl duties of the office 
two years later. The period of her asso- 
ciation with the Museum was one of tre- 
mendous growth for the organization and 
she played an integral part in handling 
the details and burdens resulting from 
the complexity and diversity of this 
growth. She was a key member of the 
administrative staff", fulfilling her many 
respKjnsibilities cheerfully and efTectiveljT 
Miss Gordon will be gready missed. Her 
ability to answer the myriad questions 
and difficulties which arise in the day-to- 
day operation of a large Museum was 
important to the staff", but even more 
valuable was her willingness, her loyalt\' 
and her friendship. Miss Gordon has 
moved to Clinton, New York. 

Miss Gordon's replacement as Regis- 
trar is Miss Mary A. Hagberg, who 
joined the staff" on February 1, 1967. 
Miss Hagberg is a graduate of the Uni- 
versity of Minnesota and the William 
Mitchell College of Law in St. Paul. 
Before coming to Field Museum, she 
served as a records analyst for Records 
Control Inc. of Chicago. 



CHICAGO. ILLINOIS 60605 A.C. 312. 922-9410 

E. Leland Webber, Director 


Edward G. Nash, Managing Editor 


Pages JUNE 



Volume 38, Number 7 July, 79S7 



Above, a radiograph of the skull and shoulder region 
of the little Pennsylvanian shark, Ornithoprion 
hertwigi, in a near perfect state of preservation. 
Completely encased in black shale, the specimen 
could only be seen by X-ray. It was collected from 
a strip mine south of Wilmington, Illinois, by Mr. 
Vernon Lake of Chicago. Around it are a spike 
near the lower jaw and a smaller spine above the 
snout, from other animals. 

radiography, a valuable research tool 

X-RAYS, or Roentgenrays (after their discoverer Wilhelm 
Konrad von Roentgen), are invisible rays of short wave- 
length that have the ability to penetrate matter. Soon after 
their discovery, just before the close of the nineteenth cen- 
tury, they were tested in a variety of scientific fields for their 
potential usefulness in demonstrating hidden structures. For 
obvious reasons, intense application of radiographic tech- 
niques developed in medical diagnosis where x-rays now play 
a most significant role. It is rather curious to note that in 
other sciences where x-rays work equally well, namely, in 
zoology, paleontology and in petrology, radiographic tech- 
niques have not become a standard research tool and have 
in the past been utilized by only a rather small number of 

scientists throughout the world. This in spite of a few classic 
studies that have clearly demonstrated the merits of radio- 
graphic techniques as often superior to any others. One of 
the most distinguished of these is the monograph by Max 
Kiipfer (1931) on the mode of bone formation during devel- 
opment in the legs of horse and donkey. 

At Field Museum of Natural History, x-rays have been 
used for diagnostic purposes as long ago as the middle twen- 
ties, when they served the investigation of the contents of 
mummies. This work culminated in a monograph on "Ro- 
entgenological studies of Egyptian and Peruvian mummies" 
by the noted paleopathologist Roy L. Moodie (Fieldiana: 
Anthropology Memoir 3, 1931). 

The equipment available was, by present standards an, 

Page 2 JULY 

fhif fatsih 

by Rainer ^angerl. Chief Curator, Geology 

archaic machine called snook that produced excellent pic- 
tures to be sure, but was extremely dangerous to operate. 
From about 1945 on, the machine was housed in the depart- 
ment of geology where it served the study of fossils. Unques- 
tionably, the most significant and extensive use came with 
the Museum's Mecca and Logan Quarry project in west- 
central Indiana. There a fascinating fauna of sharks, palae- 
oniscoid fishes and acanthodians occurs in black (carbona- 
ceous) sheety shales of Pennsylvanian age (280 million years 
ago). A vast number of specimens was collected from these 
shales, many of them representing species new to science. 
The investigation of these shales and their fossil content is 
almost wholly contingent upon the availability of .x-ray equip- 
ment because the mechanical preparation of the specimens 
is not only extremely time-consuming, but moreover injuri- 
ous to such microscopic structures as the skin denticles of 
sharks, and small, brittle bones and teeth. These carbona- 
ceous shales, on the other hand, are easily penetrated by x-rays 
and the enclosed fossils show up very clearly as shadow pic- 

tures. Since it takes only a few minutes to make an x-ray 
picture, it was both necessary and possible in this case to 
scrutinize several hundreds of pieces of shale containing fossils. 

Museum Retires SNOOK 

With the internal rebuilding of the Department of Geol- 
ogy in 1965 the old s.nook had to be retired, since it is against 
state law to move and reinstall obsolete x-ray equipment. 
This temporarily stopped work on the Mecca-Logan fauna. 

The Department of Geology is now in possession of new 
x-ray equipment. Through the good offices of a fellow pale- 
ontologist, Dr. W. Stiirmer, a senior scientist with Siemens 
AG, of Erlangen, Germany, this firm's Medical Division has 
presented Field Museum with a heliodor-duplex, a diag- 
nostic x-ray machine, equipped with a Pantix tube. 

The new equipment will serve several scientists on the 
Gology staff, but it will be the main research tool in the sys- 
tematic study of the numerous species of fishes in the Mecca 
and Logan Quarry shales of Indiana. 

^ ^ 




' >#^^^^^^^| 

Above, a positive print of a radiograph. Another specimen oj the same shark, 
skull slightly disarticulated. Because this specimen contained little pyrite, 
x-rays revealed more of the major skull structures of the shark, enabling the 

author to produce the drawing, below, of the skull of the fish. The drawing 
was made by studying stereoscopic pairs of X-ray photographs, which per- 
mitted three-dimensional visualization. 

r '. -r.~ 

JULT Page 3 

I he birth of twins and their subse- 
quent relationship to each other and to 
their society have always fascinated men, 
but nowhere has this interest been so 
tangibly and intensively expressed as 
among the Yoruba (pronounced YO- 
ruba) people of Western Nigeria. Our 
own concern with twinning lies mainly 
in the fields of human biology and psy- 
chology; this is expressed in research and 
the publication of data. The traditional 
Yoruba apparently did not speculate 
upon the nature of twins; to him they 
were an established fact of his religion; 
his concern was with their souls and it 
found expression in the carving and 
tending of images intended to enable the 
souls of deceased twins to stay their al- 
lotted time among men. 

This sculptural aspect of Yoruba in- 
terest in twins shows an extreme devel- 
opment of the religious concept but does 
little to explain its social background or 
its significance for Yoruba art. In them- 
selves these appealing wooden statuettes 
can do no more than to stimulate and 
direct lines of inquiry. 

Field Museum can now provide a stra- 
tegic point from which the study of twins 
in Yoruba religion and sculpture can 
proceed. In May it acquired a large 
collection of Yoruba twin figures which 
were found and selected in Nigeria dur- 
ing the early part of this decade by Mr. 
John Underwood, an English artist who 
was then making films for that nation's 

ministry of information. The collection 
includes sixty-eight figures, including 
thirteen presumptive pairs of twins. 

We cannot be sure that in each in- 
stance a pair of twins is represented; al- 
though the images are almost certainly 
carved by the same hand, there is some 
possibility of figures of twins from differ- 
ent pairs, but made by the same carver, 
coming upon the market together and 
gaining acceptance as replicas of true 
siblings. For reasons to be discussed, Mr. 
Underwood chose not to try to buy fig- 
ures from the families that owned them 
but instead obtained them from traders 
who were in a better position to know 
which images were dispensable. As most 
European buyers are not interested in 
the provenience or identity of twin fig- 
ures, traders do not trouble to document 
them. Our collection therefore agrees 
with those of other museums in that we 
do not know the precise identity of the 
person whom the figure represents. 
Nevertheless, by its size and diversity 
Mr. Underwood's collection offers sig- 
nificant data for an intensifying study 
of Yoruba sculpture and religion. 

Yoruba Culture 

The study of Yoruba sculpture and 
religion — inseparably linked subjects — 
must be intensive because of the com- 
plex nature of Yoruba culture. The 
Yoruba are a group of peoples closely 
related by language, culture and his- 
tory, although they do not claim a com- 
mon origin. Most of them live in West- 
ern Nigeria and eastern Dahomey, in 
country which ranges from rain forest 

differs markedly from ours in two re- 
spects. First, the Yoruba city-dweller 
is also a farmer, sustained by the hoe- 
cultivation of such crops as yams and 
maize on family land outside the city. 
Second, the Yoruba city tends to be an 
agglomeration of large family units liv- 
ing together in compounds which in turn 
make up separate quarters of the city. 

Some of the factors determining these 
conditions would be the concept of king- 
ship and a stress upon the military ex- 
pansion of the holdings of kings and 
their descendants. Before European ad- 
ministration, powerful rulers fortified 
their cities and attracted large popula- 
tions of refugees escaping the danger and 
the devastation of warfare. The larger 
towns were somewhat on the order of 
"city-states" and often exerted consid- 
erable influence over outlying towns. 

Many of the traditional Yoruba insti- 
tutions reflect the complexity of this 
people's history and their remarkable 
urban pattern of existence. Crafts were 
skillfully and intensively practiced; their 
practitioners were often organized into 
guilds. Examples of weaving, dyeing, 
forging, brass-casting and wood-carving 
show a concern for excellence and origi- 
nality on the part of the craftsman and 
sophistication on the part of the buyer. 
Yoruba culture strongly emphasized 
commerce; trade was, and still is, one of 
the main bases of its economic system. 
The Yoruba standard of living was high. 
Yoruba religion is the despair of any 
scholar whose objective is the discovery 
of universal principles and a fixed inven- 

the TWINS of YORl 

An exhibit of wooden statues of twins] 

opens at Field Museum, July 12. At i\ 

wtio collected the figures, will gi\ \ 

to open savanna. Yorubaland has 
about 6,000,000 inhabitants. Its pop- 
ulation density is remarkable, ranging 
from 5,720 to 43,372 people per square 
mile. Even more remarkable is the 
Yoruba pattern of settlement. The Yo- 
ruba are traditionally urban, living in 
large towns surrounded by wide belts 
of farmland. Six cities have populations 
of over 100,000. Their urban pattern 

tory of tribal beliefs and rituals. Earlier 
authors dealt with the religion of one 
town or region and tended to give the 
impression that all Yoruba religion fol- 
lowed that pattern. Later studies 
showed a remarkable range of variation. 
Certain beliefs, however, do seem to 
have been more or less universal in tra- 
ditional times. Some of these are found 
also in the religious systems of peoples 

Page 4 JULY 

adjacent to the Yoruba. The worship 
of certain deified ancestors, who are 
known as orisha, was common to all of 
the Yoruba. Although a few orisha are 
widely worshipped, the greater number 
are of limited distribution or only local 
importance. Moreover, the nature of 
worship differs: the cult may be individ- 
ually or privately observed or it may de- 
velop into a sizeable association. The 
requisites for membership in a cult can 
differ greatly in any one town : some 
people have the option of inheriting the 
cult belonging to their family, while 
others may be "called" to a cult. 

The orisha are candidly and explicitly 
personified deities, figures in a rich my- 
thology quite comparable to the mythol- 
ogies of Europe in its understanding of 
human foibles. Most orisha seem to be 
associated with specific places or wa- 
ters. Some widely worshipped orisha 
are, however, associated with universal 
phenomena, for instance; Eshu is the 
orisha of mischief and trickery, Egun is 
the orisha of war and iron, and Shango is 
the orisha of thunder and lightning. 

The Twin Cult 

Distinctive customs relating to twins 
are observed over the greater part of 
Yorubaland. The Ewe peoples to the 
west of the Yoruba hold similar but less 
intensively developed beliefs. Yet we 
cannot deal with a Yoruba cult of twins 
with any great degree of assurance. In 
the first place we cannot be sure that the 
twin customs, although squarely within 
the field of religion, make up a cult in 
the sense of worshipping orisha, of per- 

that represent twins. We cannot deter- 
mine whether the Ibeji orisha is personi- 
fied in any other form than twins and 
their wooden replicas. Nor can we as 
yet tell whether the person who treats 
the image of a twin according to custom 
does so to placate an orisha or the spirit, 
or spirits, of the twins themselves. We 
can find a very cursory account of a 
temple of the twin cult at the town of 
Erapo in the southwestern corner of Ni- 
geria, but this tells us nothing of its na- 
ture, other than that it was the destina- 
tion of many twins and parents of twins 
on pilgrimage. We read more often that 
the images of twins are kept in family 
shrines after they have served their pri- 
mary ritual purpose. It seems, how- 
ever, that in some cases these shrines and 
altars are dedicated to clear-cut orisha 
"belonging" to the family. 

So far, then, we can speak of a twin 
cult in the sense that twins are regarded 
as supernatural beings and cared for 
with a certain amount of ritual. Even 
then, we do not understand precisely 
why twins are so highly regarded among 
the Yoruba, and why, of all the peoples 
of Africa who share this regard, the Yo- 
ruba have developed the concept to the 
most remarkable extent. 

This development is all the more pro- 
vocative when we note that the Ondo 
Yoruba in the southeast do not have a 
tradition of twin images; indeed, some 
authorities claim that they destroy, 
rather than welcome, twins. This con- 
dition may also be true of the southern- 
most Ekiti Yoruba, neighbors of the 


by Leon Siroto, Assistant Curator, 
African Ethnology 

n the Yoruba people of Western Nigeria 
m. that evening, Mr. John Underwood, 
1 illustrated lecture on Yoruba art. 

forming primary collective rituals and 
of owning temples and priests. In the 
second place, we cannot be certain that 
all the Yoruba observe precisely the 
same usages: it would be remarkable if 
they did. 

Some authorities have written of Ibeji, 
the orisha of twins. The Yoruba word 
ibeji, literally 'twice born,' means twin; 
by extension, it refers also to the images 

Ondo, who seem not to make twin im- 
ages. The most frequently advanced 
explanation for this difference is the in- 
fluence of the twin-abhorring Edo peo- 
ples — especially manifest through the 
former Benin empire — upon their Yo- 
ruba neighbors. 

It may be that the remarkable stress 
placed by Yoruba upon twins is of rela- 
tively recent development. The Jekri 

of the Niger delta and the Igala of the 
Niger-Benue confluence although sepa- 
rated from the Yoruba, speak languages 
significantly similar to theirs. They do 
not hold twins in any great esteem. The 
Jekri regarded twin births as a mishap 
and promptly rid themselves of the in- 
fants. One Igala group is said to have 
welcomed twins without reservation, but 
another is said to have done away with 
one child under the impression that its 
birth portended the death of a parent. 
In this latter case, an image of the dead 
twin was made and tended in the same 
way as the surviving twin, a custom 
which may be of great importance in 
our coming to understand the nature of 
the characteristic Yoruba observances. 
The Yoruba believe in reincarnation: 
the soul of an ancestor continues to pass 
into the bodies of his descendants through 
time. This transmission is detected either 
through special attributes of the child or 
through divination. The concept often 
finds expression in giving the child such 
names as babalunde 'father returned' or 
omotunde 'son returned.' In the case of 
twins, however, there is no such refer- 
ence to family souls. Their separate na- 
ture is set forth in two or three fixed 
names which are borne by all Yoruba 
twins of either sex: the first born, re- 
garded as the younger, is called Taiwo; 
the following twin is called Kehinde. In 
certain unexplained cases a twin may be 
called Edun. The child who follows 

JULY Page 5 


Three figures from the city of Oyo, probably carved by the same group of carvers, but representing three different 
sets of twins. Their similarity to each other indicates that they were not intended to be faithful portraits. 
Height of full figures from left to right: ll^. 10)4, 11^ iru:hes. 

twins is usually called Idowu. 

This practice of naming may imply 
that twins are not considered to be rein- 
carnated members of the family but in- 
stead sojourning spirits of a higher order. 
This seems to be indicated by the cere- 
mony that surrounds the birth, life and 
death of twins and in the claim that their 
ad\ent brings good fortune. The mother 
of twins who have died prays that they 
be born to her again. Supernatural at- 
tributes are also imputed to the child 
who is born after the twins; one saying 
equates him with Eshu. the orisha of 

We know little more about the quan- 
tity of the supernatural component of 
Yoruba twins than of its quality. Most 
authors imply that twin souls are born 
into twin bodies. Certain groups be- 
lieve in a double creation : a soul is born 
on earth and its counterpart in heaven. 
In the case of twins, it may be that the 
heavenly soul comes to earth as a twin. 

Whomever the soul of a twin may rep- 
resent, it seems almost inseparably locked 
with that of its other twin. This is evi- 
dent in the production and use of twin 
images. As far as we now know, these 
sculptures have no other reason to exist 
than the maintenance of this linkage. 
W'hen twins are born, their father con- 
sults a diviner who uses the Ifa oracle to 
indicate the special ceremonies that the 
family must observe for their new twins. 
The suggestions offered through this pro- 
cedure concern such questions as the 
future of the twins, their dedication to 

Page 6 JULY 

the cults of certain orisha, their repre- 
sentation by images, the foods to be pre- 
pared for their ceremonies and the spe- 
cial behavior of their parents in public. 
Infant mortality was high in tradi- 
tional Africa, and the mortality rate of 
twins is known to be higher than that of 
single births. One or both of the twins 
often died. In this case, the parents 
would have to order an image of the 
deceased child. This figure was prob- 
ably consecrated in some way and there- 
after served as the dwelling place of the 
soul of the dead twin. 

Care of Twins 

In a sense, twins are regarded as one 
person; they must always be treated in 
the same way. When they are alive, 
they are given the same food, the same 
beads and, if of the same sex, the same 
clothing. If one is hurt, its twin is hurt 
in the same place. 

This equivalence is observed after the 
death of one or both twins. At intervals 
the image is symbolically fed, washed, 
and beautified with both pigments — 
indigo or European laundry blueing ap- 
plied to its headdress and a red ointment 
of powdered camwood and palm oil 
rubbed on its face and body — and orna- 
ments such as beads, shells and metal 
rings. These ornaments are as much 
intended to show esteem for the twins 
and pride in the family wealth as to en- 
hance the appearance of the image. 
Should the surviving twin injure hiin- 
self, the image of his twin is injured in 

the same way in the same place. If the 
surviving twin is given a cloth for a gar- 
ment, small pieces of it are cut off to 
clothe the images. If this is not done, 
it is believed that the neglected soul will 
be jealous and depart, taking his twin 
with him. If both twins die, a mother 
who neglects their images risks becom- 
ing sterile. 

The continual washing and feeding of 
the images tends to wear down the fea- 
tures of their faces. Figures made face- 
less in this way are not uncommon. In 
some pairs, apparently carved at the 
same time, the face of one image is far 
more worn away than that of the other 
indicating that one had died and the 
other survived or, otherwise, died much 
later. Why, then, the need for a ritu- 
ally superfluous image of the living twin? 
Perhaps the images of both are carved 
at the same time so that the balance will 
not be disturbed : the soul of the living 
thus need not envy the soul of the dead 
its attractive resting-place. 

The mother is charged with tending 
the image of the deceased twin imtil the 
survivor is old enough to take over its 
care. In the case of both twins dying 
early, the mother tends them for the rest 
of her life. Those who care for the im- 
ages carry them to be blessed at the cere- 
monies of important cults or bring them 
together with other twin images in the 
family compound at special times for 
ceremonies said to be held primarily in 
the interest of twins and their parents. 

This painstaking treatment seems to 
be more than doll-play or literal-minded 
observance of a dimly understood tradi- 
tion. Yoruba girls have dolls which are 
quite different in form and meaning 

Over the years after the ritual feeding and washing 
of the image gradually wears away its face. Twin 
figures wear diverse beads which proclaim wealth and 
cult affiliation. The face of this figure probably re- 
sembled that of right hand figure at lop of next 
page. Height: 1)4, inches. 

Twin figures showing the extent of regional variation. 
Both are from western Yorubaland. Left, llj^, a 
style oj the Shaki region in the north; right, 9 J^, the 
region of Abeokuta about 100 miles to the south. 

from the twin figures. The guardian 
of the image seems to strongly feel his or 
her responsibility to its indwelling soul. 
Quite elderly Yoruba women have been 
seen tending the images of their twin 
sisters. Early in this century anthropol- 
ogists succeeded in buying away such 
images, but only after certain rites were 
performed to transfer the soul into a new 
image. Later travellers in Yorubaland 
— such as Mr. Underwood — were more 
considerate of family affairs and ob- 
tained their twin figures through traders 
who obtained them mostly from Muslim 
and Christian converts. On the other 
hand, with the decline of the twin cus- 
toms in the more modernized Yoruba 
centers, carvers, noting European inter- 
est in these easily handled epitomes of 
traditional sculpture, have turned to 
making them for sale as souvenirs. 

Looking at a large number of twin 
images carved by one man or his fol- 
lowers gives us an idea of the respect 
that the twins' families feel for their de- 
ceased members. We also see that de- 
spite their belonging to different fam- 
ilies, the figures resemble each other very 
closely. But for ornamental scar pat- 
terns, their faces are almost identical, 
and sometimes these patterns are the 
same. The images are clearly not por- 

traits in our sense of the word, and yet 
they are quite recognizable to their fam- 
ilies, to the extent that they can be used 
as genealogical reference points. 

Upon the death of the guardian, the 
images are no longer carefully tended. 
They are still kept by the family, to- 
gether with other twin images, in a spe- 
cial place which may be the shrine or 
the altar of a family orisha. They are 
apparently kept as long as circumstances 
permit; an example found in one Yo- 
ruba town was traced back to 110 years 
earlier. The twin image thus seems to 
undergo a functional transformation 
from soul-container to commemorative 

Although not a faithful portrait of an 
individual, the twin figure does have 
attributes which serve as makers of so- 
cial status and which may be sufficient 
for establishing its identity within its 
family. Types of coiffure and beads may 
be said to symbolize affiliation with cults 
or professional groups (often the two 
forms of association are not distinct from 
each other). 

The Statues as Traditional Sculpture 

Even though the features of twin fig- 
ures may not lead us to discover the 
identity of the persons they represented, 
they can greatly help in the identifica- 
tion of Yoruba carvers. These days, the 
study of African traditional sculpture in 
its original contexts must be pursued as 
quickly as possible; in most parts of the 
continent the conditions that sustained 
the old forms of wood-carving are chang- 
ing rapidly and abruptly. The Yoruba 
offer the best field for the investigation 
of most aspects of this subject. In the 
sense of maintaining the framework of 
their traditional institutions and of ad- 
hering to their fundamental religious 
concepts, they are conservative. Even 
where they have been nominally ac- 
cepted, Christianity and Islam have not 
replaced the traditional religion. (The 
persistence of the old beliefs is demon- 
strated by the observance of the Yoruba 
twin customs by Brazilians of Yoruba 
descent; in eastern Brazil the customs 
have been reinterpreted into the cult of 
the twin Saints, Cosmas and Damian.) 
The traditional cults and customs re- 
quired a sizeable inventory of carved 
paraphernalia. Cults in this populous 

JULY Page 7 

land gave rise to and sustained many 
carvers, some of whom, although anony- 
mous, arc notable for their excellence, 
both in our terms and those of the Yo- 
ruba. The intensive production of sculp- 
ture occasioned considerable striving for 
self-expression and individuality within 
traditional dictates of form. 

Some anthropologists believe that 
twin figures offer a basic field for the 
study of Yoruba sculpture. William 
Fagg, the foremost authority on Yoruba 
twin figures, states this point concisely: 
"Almost all the Yoruba have the custom 
of replacing dead twins by carved fig- 
ures of more or less constant size (about 
10 inches) and posture, and almost every 
Yoruba carver nmst have carved exam- 
ples of them, thus providing closely com- 
parable material for stylistic comparison; 
the range of sculptural expression 
achieved within the rather narrow limits 
of this art form is extraordinary, and the 
individuality of the carvers stands out all 
the more strikingly because of the un- 
varying subject matter." 

Thus we can often discern quite dis- 
tinct styles in the gross features of a ran- 
dom selection of twin figures from differ- 
ent parts of Yorubaland. A modest 
amount of documentation enables us to 
attribute some of these styles to certain 
large regions and, perhaps less often, to 
certain towns. The tradition of the twin 
figure, as Fagg has pointed out, grants 

This shirt covered with cowry shells honors the twin 
and indicates its family's wealth: the Toruba for- 
merly used cowries as money. The overlapping ar- 
rangement of the shells may symbolize the twin's 
dedication to a certain cult. The shirt came into the 
collection without any figure. 

the investigator a technique for more 
precise documentation of styles and in- 
dividual carvers. 

Where other sculptures are often, by 
virtue of their size, situation and sculp- 
tural elaboration, liable to damage and 
consequently to abandonment, twin fig- 
ures, small and compact, are carefully 
kept in relatively protected situations. 

Since their families regard them as in- 
dividuals and thus can refer to them in 
genealogical reckoning, twin figures rep- 
resent points in time. These points, 
when correlated with the work of a 
named carver, can indicate the develop- 
ment of a local or an individual style, 
one which could also be expressed in 
sculptures of major importance. 

The Yoruba had many twins; statis- 
tics indicate that their proportion of twin 
births may be considerably greater than 
that of Europeans. Understandably, the 
twin figure is the commonest type of 
Voruba sculpture. Its abundance can 
reveal the existence and even disclose 
the identity of carvers who might other- 
wise remain forever obscure. 

This discussion of twin images should 
suggest the many problems posed by 
their form and function. Many of these 
problems — and certain others — are evi- 
dent in Mr. Underwood's collection, 
since it covers a good part of the twin 
image-producing part of Yorubaland. 
Quite conceivably it may also cover a 
good span of time. A few of the images 
show such old features as the lip-plug 
once worn by women and the codpiece- 
style breeches worn by Europeans in the 
16th Century. We hope to make the 
collection more representative through 
acquisition of examples of certain well- 
known styles from eastern and northern 
Yorubaland. Even as the collection now 
stands, students of African art and re- 
ligion should welcome this large, diver- 
sified group to the Museum. 



CHICAGO. ILLINOIS 60605 A.C. 312. 922-9410 

E. Leland Webber, Director 


Edward G. Nash, Managing Editor 


Francis Brenton, who last year singlehandedly piloted two canoes lashed together 
from the Colombian coast three thousand miles to Chicago and Field Museum, left 
early in June on an even more difficult and dangerous trip. Brenton left Diversey 
Harbor bound for West Africa, via the Great Lakes, the St. Lawrence and the North 
Atlantic. He sails in the same 26-foot dugout, the Sierra Sagrada, in which he 
sailed from South America last year. He has added a fiberglass-covered pontoon, 
a 20 horse power long-shaft motor and a fiberglass kayak, for exploring West Afri- 
can rivers. 

He goes with a shopping list for the Museum's Department of Anthropology, 
which is interested in obtaining handicrafts, fishing, hunting and agricultural tools. 
He expects to reach St. Louis, his first port of call in Africa, on the frontier between 
Senegal and Mauritania, in five months. He will then head up the Senegal River 
in his kayak on the first leg of a tour of the West African bulge which will lead him 
ultimately to Timbuktu in Mali. 

The final portion of his trip will be across the Atlantic to British Guiana and 
Brazil, and, sometime toward the end of next year, a return to Chicago. 

Museum open 9 a.m. to 6 p.m. every 

CALENDAR OF EVENTS day; open to S p. m. on Wednesday, 

Friday, Saturday and Sunday 

July 12 through August Exhibit: Yoruba Twin Figures. The Underwood 
Collection of twin statuettes from Nigeria. See Cover Story. Hall 9 Gallery. 

July 12 Lecture: Yorub.a Twin Figures. Artist John Underwood speaks on the 
twin cult and Nigerian art at 8 p.m. 

July 1 3 Film for children: A Bit of Can.^d.^. Previews of what can be seen on 
the way to Expo '67. James Simpson Theatre, 10 a.m. and 1 p.m. 

July 20 Film for children: Water Fun. James Simpson Theatre, 10 a.m. and 
1 p.m.; special program for Cub Scouts at 11 a.m. 

July 27 Film for children: Yellowstone National Park .\nd Its Bears. James 
Simpson Theatre, 10 a.m. and 1 p.m. 

August 3 Film for children : Potlatch Country: Idaho. A wilderness of adven- 
ture. 10 a.m. and 1 p.m. James Simpson Theatre. 

August 5-27 Exhibit: The Enigma of Colors and Patterns. 31 photographs 
and drawings illustrate such phenomena as protective coloration and adaptation 
in the Animal Kingdom. 

August 10 Film for children: Living Giants. The biggest living things in the 
world today. James Simpson Theatre, 10 a.m. and 1 p.m. 

Through August Summer Journey : Animal Immigrants. A self-guided tour for 
young people of exhibits showing animals found in the United States but native 
to other countries. Direction sheets and information available at both Museum 
entrances and the information desk. 

MEETINGS 1 Chicago Shell Club, July 9 and August 13, 2 p.m. 


Five openings remain on the October 27-November 12 Field Museum 
Tour of Guatemala, according to Phil Clark, Museiun Public Relations Counsel 
and leader of the Tour. 

The Tour, for two groups of 30 each, now has 55 registrations. It will visit 
Spanish Colonial towns, Indian villages and markets, ruins of Maya temples and 
pyramids, volcano-circled lakes, pine-covered mountains, rainforest jungles and 
private homes and gardens. Experts on archaeology, ethnology, botany and gar- 
dening will accompany the Tour, which will also hear Guatemalan specialists on 
birds and handicrafts. 

Price of the Tour, all expenses included, is $1,260, including a $400 tax de- 
ductible donation to Field Museum. Information is available by writing Field 
Museum's Guatemala Tour, Field Museum. 

Pages JILT 



Volume 38, Number 8 August, 1967 


Cabbages and Kin 

by Louis 0. Williams, Chief Curator, Botarv, 

Spanish half-long radish is a 
root of the Earth Vegetable 
category, black in color and 
tasting like a turnip. 

Botanists and others who work with the systematics of plants 
sometimes are inclined to overlook the prosaic things that are 
our food plants, or even to consider them unworthy of serious 
study. But just consider a few food plants, and you'll see how 
mistaken this view is. 

The mustard family of plants {Crucijerae) contributes a 
number of interesting things to our everyday diet, in addi- 
tion to the ubiquitous yellow paste commonly spread on ham- 
burgers and hotdogs. For example, Brussels sprouts is an 
herbage vegetable of the mustard family. 

A close relative of the cabbage, Brussels sprouts goes by 
the botanical name Brassica oleracea var. gemmijera. Brassica 
oleracea is the common cabbage, the variety gemmijera is the 
kind of cabbage that is "bud or sprout bearing." These mini- 
ature "cabbages" of Brussels sprouts develop from axillary 
buds along the stem of the plant. Another characteristic of 
the cabbage-type vegetables in the mustard family is the cool 
climate they require. The Brussels sprouts plant will not de- 
velop the edible buds where the temperature average is much 
above 55 degrees F. In northern Europe, the climate is well 
suited for growing cabbage-type vegetables. As its name 
suggests, Brussels sprouts grows well in the climate and soil 
of Belgium, and it is likely the plant existed there as early as 
1200. Brussels sprouts was first described in a record dated 
1587, but little was known about it, even by botanists, until 
the 17th century. Despite its long history, Brussels sprouts is 
a newcomer to the dinner table. Frozen food processing has 
made Brussels sprouts conveniently available and greatly in- 
creased its production in the regions where it can grow. 

No self-respecting food store is without Brussels sprouts in 
its frozen food section, yet there are many people who do not 
know what the plant that produces this vegetable looks like. 
This month's Bulletin cover will help remedy this. It shows 
a model of Brussels sprouts recently completed by Mr. Frank 
Boryca of the Museum's Exhibition Department, placed on 
exhibition in the Hall of Useful Plants. The next time you 
come to the Museum, go to Hall 28 to see it and other plants 
useful to man. 

Plants of economic importance, those that supply varied 
products that are useful to man, are a relatively small group 
in comparison to all the kinds of plants. There are probably 
no more than a dozen plants of major importance to man. 

This is the stem of a Kohlrabi plant. The fleshy, 
edible structure develops jusi above the ground and has 
large leaves, cut off in this model, growing out of it. 

Page 2 AUG US/ 

The average consumer is likely to associate plants of similar usage; thus, carrots, 
radishes, beets arui parsnips are somehow similar, since we eat their roots. Often, 
however, the true systematic relationships are quite different. The plant models pic- 
tured in this month's Bulletin, /rom the .Museum's Hall oj Vsejul Plants, are all 
crucijers, named for the cross-shaped flower common to the family. 

Certainly, the plant most useful to man is maize, and rice, 
wheat, the potato and beans rank high. Corn is found in more 
food stuffs and industrial products than any other plant. 

Man is by nature a classifier, and the types of useful plants 
have been classified in various ways. Dr. Albert F. Hill's 
Economic Botany (McGraw-Hill, 1952) is a thorough and in- 
teresting reference book on economically valuable plants. 
Dr. Hill provides a simple classification of economic plants, 
dividing them into four major categories based on the uses 
they serve: Industrial Plants and Plant Products; Drug Plants 
and Drugs; Food Plants; and Food .Adjuncts. Each one of 
these categories is subdivided into more specific divisions. 

-According to Dr. Hill's system of classification, Brussels 
sprouts falls into the group Food Plants. Dr. Hill subdivides 
these into the following: Major Cereals; Minor Cereals and 
Small Grains; Legumes and Nuts; \'egetables; Fruits of Tem- 
perate Regions; and Tropical Fruits. Turning to the V'ege- 
tables, we find that these are broken down into the following 
categories: Earth Vegetables, such as the potato, carrot and 
onion in which the food is stored in underground parts; Fruit 
Vegetables like tomato, avocado and eggplant which are 
technically fruits, but are cooked as vegetables or used raw 
in salad; and Herbage Vegetables like spinach, asparagus and 
cabbage in which the nutrients are stored above ground. 
Brussels sprouts and the other cabbage-types are classified 
among the Herbage Vegetables. 

Theie is no clear-cut distinction between vegetables and 
fruits, but generally, plants or plant parts that are cooked 
and seasoned with salt are vegetables, and those flavored 
with sugar are fruits. The radish fits neither category, 
since it is eaten raw, but as a root, it is classed an Earth 

Cauliflower is a Fruit Vegetable of the 
mustard family. Like broccoli, the modi- 
fled, partly developed flower structures and 
stems are the edible part of the cauliflower. 

Ule of ^ TIKI 

by Christopher C. Legge, Custodian of Collections, Anthropology 
and Edward G. Nash 

That remarkable century, the Eight- 
eenth, saw the beginnings of much of our 
modern world. The Industrial Revolu- 
tion and political revolutions reshaped 
the social, political and physical life of 
Western man. The rise of scientific in- 
quiry in the modern sense changed man's 
view of his universe. Natural sciences 
were, in effect, born during the eight- 
eenth century as true systematic sciences. 
The establishment of the Linnaean sys- 
tem of classification (1753 for flowering 
plants, 1758 for animals) provided bench- 
marks for all later nomenclatura! work 
on living things. The great public mu- 
seums date from the eighteenth century : 
the British Museum was created by Par- 
liament in 1753. Twenty years later the 
Vatican opened a public museum. The 
Louvre was established as a museum in 
1793 by the French Republic. Many of 
these museums grew out of the collec- 
tions of art, artifacts and specimens made 
by interested amateurs; collections which 
coalesced — often rather haphazardly — 
into the modern museums. 

Page 4 AUGUST 

One such collector was Sir Ashton 
Lever, of Alkrington Hall, near Man- 
chester. In 1760, Lever was reputed to 
have the finest aviary in the British Isles. 
His attention turned to fossils and shells 
after buying several hogsheads of shells in 
France. Lever finally became a human 
magpie, collecting all kinds of natural 
objects, savage costumes and weapons. 

In 1774, he moved his collection from 
Alkrington Hall to Leicester House, 
London. In this stately mansion that 
forty years before had been the home of 
George II when he was Prince of Wales, 
Lever opened a museum which he called 
the Holophusikon, meaning that it em- 
braced all nature. He filled 16 rooms 
and many passages with 26,000 items. 

The Dictionary of National Biography 
says that Lever grew eccentric in dress 
and manner as he grew older. The as- 
sertion seems to be based on an entry in 
Fanny Burney's diary for December 31st 
1782, when she visited the museum. She 
wrote, "He may be an admirable natur- 
alist but I think that if in other matters 

you leave the 'ist' out you will not much 
wrong him." Fanny Barney went on to 
say that he pranced around dressed in 
green, with feathers in his hat, a bundle 
of arrows under one arm and a bow in 
his hand. He may not, however, have 
been the only man in England whose 
conduct was eccentric on a New Year's 
Eve. Moreover, Lever always had a 
passion for archery. When he died of 
apoplexy in 1788, he was sitting with the 
other magistrates of Manchester. He 
was capable of holding responsible office 
to the end. 

At some point during the years Lever 
maintained his museum (1774-1785), 
he added to the 26,000 pieces in his col- 
lection a small hei-tiki, a Maori neck 
pendant of a female figure in green stone. 
Captain James Cook's second and third 
voyages to the South Pacific returned to 
England during these years, and, in- 
deed, no other European had visited 
New Zealand. The tiki must have come 
on one of these voyages. Perhaps Cook, 
who undoubtedly knew Lever, presented 
it to him after the second voyage. But 
Lever acquired a large number of ob- 
jects from Cook's voyages in 1781. The 
third expedition had returned to Eng- 
land in 1780 after the explorer's murder 
in Hawaii, and it is more probable that 
the piece arrived on that voyage. 

Tikis were fairly common ornaments 
in New Zealand. Gilbert Archey in 
South Sea Folk (1949) writes, "It has been 
suggested that the curious shape of the 
hei-tiki indicated a human foetus, and 
that it was a fertility charm to be worn 
only by women, but records of early ex- 
plorers show that it was commonly worn 
by men. Moreover, nearly all human 
figures in Maori wood carving have large 
heads and cramped limbs, and a more 
recent view is that the hei-tiki is a coun- 
terpart in green stone of a human figure 
in wood carving." Lever's tiki is four 
inches high and two or so wide. The 
detail is good, but the circular inlaid 
paua shell eyes look badly done, due, 
perhaps, to the flaking off of the upper 

layers of shell. A bird bone toggle is at- 
tached to the suspension cord, which is 
looped through the hole between the 
right arm and the side of the figure. 

By the early 1 780's, then, the tiki had 
already traveled 13,000 miles. It still 
had some distance to go. Sir Ashton's 
collecting approached mania, and his 
fortune was sadly depleted. A Parlia- 
mentary committee praised the high 
quality of the collection and appraised it 
at 53,000£. Sir William Hamilton, 
whose contribution to the British naval 
successes of the Napoleonic Wars has 
never been fully acknowledged, was a 
member of the committee, and he con- 
sidered the collection better than any he 
had seen on the continent. Another 
member. Baron Dimsdale, an early ad- 
vocate of innoculation, had seen the mu- 
seums at St. Petersburg and Moscow 

Copyright British Museum 

when he journeyed to Russia to innocu- 
late Catherine the Great and the Grand 
Duke Paul against small pox. He felt 
that, even taken together, the two mu- 
seums could not compare with Lever's. 
In 1783, he offered it to the British Mu- 
seum for somewhat less than the ap- 
praised value. Dr. Samuel Johnson 
hoped that the Museum would purchase 
it, but the trustees declined. 

A special Act of Parliament in 1785 
gave Lever permission to sell his collec- 
tion by public lottery. 36,000 tickets at 
a guinea each were printed. Unhap- 
pily, only 8,000 were sold, and Lever 
realized only about 8400 £, less the cost 
of the lottery. 

Mr. James Parkinson won the lottery. 
At the end of 1 787 he moved the entire 
collection to the Rotunda, a building 
near Blackfriars Bridge, on the south 
bank of the Thames, erected by Parkin- 
son for the collection. The name be- 
came Museum Leveriarum and for a 
number of years remained one of the 
sights of London. Parkinson published 
a series of six volumes called Museum 
Leveriarum, containing descriptions of the 
collection in English and Latin, with 
colored plates of birds, mammals and 
reptiles. Field Museum has a copy in its 
Rare Book Room. 

By 1806, the Museum had become 
neglected; the collection was broken up 
into nearly 8,000 lots and auctioned off. 
The sale lasted two months, with a cata- 
log running to 406 pages. William Bul- 
lock, a Liverpool jeweler, bought a num- 
ber of the lots and became the owner of 
the tiki. He opened a museum in Liver- 
pool and published a catalog in 1808 
which described specimens from Cook's 
voyages and other items. About 1812, 
Bullock, and the tiki, returned to Lon- 
don. He housed his collection in the 
new Egyptian Hall in Piccadilly, which 
later became known as the London Mu- 
seum. Bullock eventually turned into 
something of a Barnum. He bought the 
carriage used constantly by Napoleon 
from the Moscow campaign to Waterloo 
for 2500£. Bullock made ten times that 
amount by exhibiting it. In 1819, the 
year of Victoria's birth, Bullock sold off 
his collection to obtain funds for newer 

and gaudier projects. The tiki became 
lot 47, "Superb idol of jade stone from 
New Zealand." The tiki then disap- 
pears from the record. 

Queen Victoria had been on the 
throne for 60 years, and the age which 
took her name was nearing its end when 
the tiki reappeared. In 1897, the con- 
tents of Hengrave Hall, a fine Tudor 
house at Bury St. Edmonds, Suffolk, 
was put up for sale by the trustees of 
John Lysaght. Among the many items 
was Lever's tiki, still carrying the label 
placed on it in Parkinson's London Mu- 
seum: "107 Idol, New Zealand, curi- 
ously carved in beautiful nephritic stone 
or jade, worn round the neck. This is 
the largest and finest that was in the col- 
lection of the Leverian Museum." 

If it had been in Hengrave Hall all 
those years, then it must have been pur- 
chased in 1819 by Thomas Gage, then 
the master of Hengrave. If it came to 
Hengrave later, it passed through that 
untraceable and amorphous link called 
"many other hands." A successful Ip- 
swich dry goods man, Alfred Pretty, 
bought it at the Hengrave sale. 

In 1913 the tiki came into the collec- 
tion of the famed Oceanic collector, 
Captain A. W. F. Fuller and remained 
in his home at Tulse Hill, Surrey. In 
1958, Field Museum acquired more than 
5,000 specimens of Fuller's excellent col- 
lection, and the tiki crossed the Atlantic. 
Field Museum placed it in Hall F, de- 
voted to Polynesia and Micronesia. And 
there it rests. 

Leicester Square in the Eighteenth Century, Leicester House^ with a small courtyard in front, 
is at the upper right corner oj the Square. Here Sir Ashton Lever had his museum for 11 years. 

Copyright London Museum. 


Fall Workshops for Members' Children 

An opportunity to meet Museum staff and work with specimens and materials from the Museum's scientific 
collections is again offered in a series of unique workshops open to the children and grandchildren of Members. 
Designed by the Raymond Foundation to stimulate and develop interest in the study of nature and man, these 
small group workshops, geared to different age levels, have been enthusiastically received by Museum Members 
and their families since they began in 1963. These Saturday programs last about one hour for the younger 
children and one and a half hours for the older children. Allow extra time if children are to bring specimens 
for identification. 

Reservations are necessary, and application forms are inserted in this issue of the Bulletin. Since it will 
probably not be possible to accommodate all applicants, we urge you to mail in your applications early. 
Please list the program, date and hour you wish, in order of preference. Each applicant will be scheduled 
into one program only, and reservations will be accepted in the order in which they are received. Applicants 
accepted will receive a confirmation card which will serve as an admission card to the workshop. 

Make your selections and send your application now, to Raymond Foundation, Field Museum of Natural 
History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois 60605. 

September 30 

Indians of Woodlands and Plains 

Harriet Smith, Leader 
For ages 8-10 10:30 A.M. 

For ages 11 -14 1:30 P.M. 

Indian tribes have developed ways of life that are adapted to 
their environment, and they have also shown great skill in 
utilizing materials furnished by nature to suit man's pur- 
poses. In this workshop, youngsters will handle various nat- 
urally-occiuring raw materials and see how the Indians 
utilized them in making tools, weapons and household equip- 
ment. Movies showing how Indian life varied in the wood- 
lands and western plains will also be shown. 


George Fricke, Leader 
For ages 9-10 10:30 A.M. 

Forages 11-12 1:30 P.M. 

Work with Museum specimens will show structure and parts 
of insects. Emphasis will be on collecting, preserving and 
displaying insects. 

October 7 

Life in an Old Dead Tree 

Marie Svoboda, Leader 

For ages 5-7 

Parents are also invited. 

10:30 A.M. 
and 1:30 P.M. 

This is a special program for family groups. It will demon- 
strate the different kinds of animals that might make their 
home in an old dead tree. Such a dwelling place is picked, 
not for its beautiful setting or for its lovely view, but for the 
protection it affords. 

Boneyard Menagerie 

Ernest Roscoe, Leader 
For ages 6-7 10:30 A.M. and 1 :30 P.M. 

This workshop will "rattle the skeletons in a few closets" by 
discussing the prehistoric relatives of familiar animals found 
in zoos and aquaria. Children should be accompanied by 
at least one parent. Be prepared for a few surprises! 

Page 6 AUGUST 

October 14 


George Fricke, Leader 

Forage? 10:30 A.M. 

Work will be done with Museum specimens to point out the 
parts of a bird. Emphasis will be given to attracting birds 
and feeding them in winter. 


George Fricke, Leader 
For age 8 1 :30 P.M. 

For a description of this workshop see the September 30 work- 
shop on Insects. 

Rock and Mineral Kingdom 

Ernest Roscoe, Leader 
Forages 10-13 10:30A.M. 

This is a slightly advanced program on rocks and minerals. 
After a talk on the qualities and characteristics for identifying 
different species of rocks and minerals, youngsters will be sent 
to the exhibition halls with question sheets to answer on their 
own. Children may bring their own specimens for identi- 

October 21 

Caveman to Civilization 

Edith Fleming, Leader 
For ages 10-1 3 10:30 A.M. and 1 :30 P.M. 

A movie on the life of the cave men, showing how they hunted 
prehistoric animals, opens this workshop. In the discussion 
and demonstration period following, boys and girls will exam- 
ine real tools used by cave men thousands of years ago, learn 
how they were made, and compare them to tools used today. 

From Fish to Man 

Ernest Roscoe, Leader 
For ages 10-1 3 10:30 A.M. 

This workshop will trace the development of the vertebrates, 
animals with backbones. Starting with fish, the first 
members of the vertebrates, the workshop will proceed to 
amphibians, then reptiles, birds and the most complex verte- 
brates, the mammals, culminating in man. 

October 28 


Ernest Roscoe, Leader 
For ages 8-9 10:30A.M. 

Parents are also invited. and 1 :30 P.M. 

For a good introduction to rocks and minerals, apply for this 
workshop. There will be specimens to study, demonstrations 
and an informative session in the exhibition halls. You can 
bring your own specimens for identification. 


A NEW mineral, stanfieldite, not known in terrestrial rocks, 
has been discovered in the Esterville meteorite. The mete- 
orite fell in 1879 in Emmet County, Iowa, near the town of 
Esterville. Several large masses totaling over 700 pounds 
were recovered. Specimens of this meteorite have been used 
for various scientific studies for several years, but this new 
mineral was not discovered until recently. The mineral is a 
phosphate of calcium, magnesium, and iron and has the 
chemical formula: Ca4Mg3Fe2 (P04)6. Only a few grains of 
the mineral have been found in a piece of the meteorite 
2' X 1" X ^'' in size. The largest grain measures 1/25 of an 
inch in diameter; however, this is sufficiently large for the 
determination of its properties and chemical composition by 
modern analytical methods. 

Over the years the Museum has acquired pieces of the 
Esterville meteorite. At the present time the Museum's hold- 
ings consist of 146 individual pieces which total twenty-one 

Although meteorites are usually named after the geograph- 
ical locality where they are found, new minerals found in 
meteorites are often named after persons who were or are 
prominent investigators of meteorites, or after persons who 
have performed other valuable services to the field of meteo- 
ritics. The mineral farringtonite, for example, was named 
after Dr. O. C. Farrington (1864-1933), former Curator of 
Geology at Field Museum. He and the late Mr. Stanley Field, 
former Chairman of the Board of Trustees, were largely re- 
sponsible for building up the meteorite collection of the Mu- 
seum to one of the world's largest by means of purchases, 
exchanges, and field finds. The new mineral, stanfieldite, is 
named in recognition of Mr. Stanley Field's participation in 
this achievement. When a name has been assigned to a min- 
eral, the same name may not be used to designate another 
mineral. The name fieldite was used many years ago with 
reference to another mineral and honoring a different Field. 
Hence, in this case, the new mineral was named by com- 
pounding Mr. Stanley Field's first and last names. It is one 
of a group of rare phosphate minerals which has recently 
been found by the writer in several meteorites. Others are 
brianite (named after Dr. Brian Mason of the U. S. National 
Museum) and panethite (named after the late Dr. F. Paneth 
of the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany). 

The mineral and name have been approved by the mem- 
bers of the Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names 
of the International Mineralogical Association. Members of 
this Commission voting were from the following countries: 
Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Canada, Denmark, Egypt, 
Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Japan, Neth- 
erlands, New Zealand, Norway, Spain, U.S.A., and the 

An article describing the properties and presenting the 
crystallographic data for stanfieldite will be submitted to a 
scientific journal in the near future. 

— Louis H. Fuch.i 

Argonne National Laboratory 

AUGUST Page 7 

rA^A'A^ ' 

\ •.4"« • •' 

A . fc*%'A'-,T/. A < 


One of the most prominent living specialists on Guatemalan archaeology, Dr. 
Edwin M. Shook, will join Dr. Donald Collier, Field Museum Chief Curator of 
Anthropology, in accompanying and giving expert interpretation to members 
of Field Museum's Guatemala Tour, October 27-November 12, it was announced 
recently by Phil Clark, Field Museum Public Relations Counsel and Tour Leader. 

Dr. Shook, who headed the Tikal project of the University of Pennsylvania 
from its foundation in 1955 until 1964, is also well known for outstanding work in 
excavation and interpretation of the ruins of Kaminaljuyu and Iximche, included 
on the Tour's itinerary. He is the Executive Director of the John Lloyd Stephens 
Foundation, which specializes in Maya research, and has served as Archaeologist 
and Research Associate in Archaeology for the Carnegie Institution, as Director 
of the Guatemala Training Program in Archaeology of Rockefeller Foundation, 
as Research Staff Archaeologist for the Associated Colleges of the Midwest Cen- 
tral American Studies Program and as Professor at the Universidad de Costa Rica. 

A few openings still exist on the October 27-November 1 2 Tour, according to 
Mr. Clark. Price of the all-expense, 16-day Tour, including a tax-deductible $400 
donation to Field Museum, is $1,260. Further information may be obtained by 
writing Field Museum's Guatemala Tour. 

Other specialists accompanying the Tour will include Dr. Antonio Molina, 
Field Botanist for Field Museum, of the Escuela Agricola Panamericana, and 
Mr. Clark, who is a garden writer and specialist on Mexi- 
can and Central American plants; speakers will include 
these prominent Guatemala residents. Dr. Wilson Popenoe, 
horticulturist, dofia Lily de Jongh Osborne, on handi- 
crafts, Dr. Jorge Ibarra, bird specialist and Director of 
the National Museum of Natural History, and dona 
Carmen de Pettersen and don Hugh Craggs, estate owners. 

Dr. Shook replaces Dr. Malcolm Collier, wife of Field 
Museum's Chief Curator of Anthropology, who was unable 
to accompany the Tour because of other commitments in 

Museum open 9 a.m. to 6 p.m. every 

CALENDAR OF EVENTS ''^y; "P'" '" ^ P-'"- «" Wednesday, 

Friday, Saturday and Sunday 

August 5 — 27 Exhibit: Color and Patterns in the Animal Kingdom, A Smith- 
sonian Traveling Exhibit. 31 photographs and drawings illustrate such phe- 
nomena as protective coloration and adaptation in the Animal Kingdom. 
Stanley Field Hall. 

August 10 Film for children: Living Giants. The biggest living things in the 
world today. James Simpson Theatre, 10 a.m. and 11 a.m. 

Through August Exhibit: Yoruba Twin Figures: Carvings from Nigeria. A 
collection of statuettes of twins made for religious and artistic purposes by the 
Yoruba people of Western Nigeria. Hall 9. 

Through August Summer Journey: Animal Immigrants. A self-guided tour 
for young people of exhibits showing animals found in the United States but 
native to other countries. Direction sheets and information available at both 
Museum entrances and the information desk. 

September 8 — 24 Exhibit: Drawings by Students of the Junior School of 
the Art Institute. About 50 color illustrations and constructions of Museum 
exhibits made by artists seven to 14 years old. Hall 9. 

September Through November Fall Journey: Ancient Rome. A self-guided 
tour through exhibits that illustrate many aspects of daily living at the time of 
the Roman Empire. 

,,rr._,.,__ Shell Club, Sept. 10, 2 p.m. 
MEETINGS: „ /- c . n ^ ^c 

Camera Club, Sept. 12, 7:45 p.m 


After 26 years at Field Museum, Wal- 
ter Reese, Preparator in the Department 
of Anthropology, recently retired. In 
1941, Reese was apprenticed to John 
Anderson, carpenter in the Department, 
and was appointed Preparator in 1951. 

A good Museum Preparator is a jack- 
of-all trades, and a master of many. He 
is intimately concerned in the prepara- 
tion, planning, design, building and in- 
stallation of exhibits. He works with 
dozens of different materials, wood, tex- 
tiles, plastics, metal, and so forth. He 
has a good eye, a wide knowledge of the 
resources available, and he is clever with 
his hands. Walter Reese has all these 
abilities and more: a friendly and help- 
ful disposition. 

Mr. Reese worked in the Department 
of Anthropology during a period of in- 
novation and intense activity in the ex- 
hibition program. Eight Halls were 
completely redone, including five Amer- 
ican Indian Halls, Polynesia, the Hall of 
Primitive Art and Hall 32 South, China 
in Ch'ing Dynasty, and a ninth, Tibet, 
is well under way. The colorful, didac- 
tic style in which they were done has 
strongly influenced methods of exhibi- 
tion in other American and many for- 
eign museums. Reese's ingenuity played 
a large part in the success of these ex- 
hibits. When the Robert R. McCormick 
Conservation Laboratory was built in 
1964, he designed and built several ac- 
cessory pieces of equipment for the resto- 
ration and preservation of artifacts in the 
anthropology collections. 

Mr. Reese's outside activities were, in 
part, a continuation of his work. He 
built the house to which he has retired, 
near Pentwater, Michigan, and he was 
involved in many do-it-yourself projects 
over the years, projects useful to himself, 
his wife, and his neighbors. 



CHICAGO. ILLINOIS 60605 A.C. 312. 922-9410 


E. Leland Webber, Director 


Edward G. Nash, Managing Editor 

Page 8 AUGUST 



Volume 38, Number 9 September, 1967 

underground art 

by Matthew H. Nitecki, Assistant Curator of Fossil Invertebrates 

The concretions shown on the cover and above were selected for their 
unusual and attractive shapes. In general, observers do not identify 
them as naturally occurring rocks. Their shapes strongly suggest that 
they are man-made, but in fact these specimens are claystone concretions 
collected in the American Northeast. 

From time to time stones of unusual and attractive aspect are 
collected, of shapes so unusual they seem to be the product of 
human creative activity. Some stones are elongated, some 
are round and many have indescribable forms — but some, 
shown in the accompanying photographs, look like objects of 
art. Of a group of students who saw these rocks, some iden- 
tified them as "primitive art, . . . fertility symbols, perhaps 
related to Eskimo art . . . certainly very primitive objects." 
Other students were certain that these rocks were "modern 
art." Most, however, considered them to be archaeological 
finds associated with early human culture. 

In this light these stones, called concretions, raise a pro- 
voking problem about the definition of art, as well as a geo- 
logical problem. We might think of Art as something that 
can please our esthetic tastes. Proceeding from this defini- 
tion, does it make a difference what produces the object, 
man or natural forces, so long as the form impresses us with its 
beauty? Who decides what beauty is? I leave this and many 
other pertinent questions to the reader. . . . 

Concretions are commonly found in sedimentary rocks. 
They are of varying composition and frequently are harder 
than their surrounding rock matrix. Concretions are obvious 
even to cursory examination, since they are more resistant to 
weathering and erosion and often stand out from their matrix. 

The name "concretion" is derived from the Latin con- 
crescere, meaning to grow together. Materials in solution in- 
side a rock are drawn to scattered centers where they grow 
to form the harder discrete bodies, or concretions. 

The common sedimentary rocks in which concretions are 
found are limestone, shale and sandstone. These consist 
mainly of grains of calcite, clay or quartz, which initially 
accumulated to form loose sediments. All the chemical and 
physical processes which transform these loose sediments into 
hard rocks are called diagenesis. During the time that dia- 
genetic processes occur, a great number of phenomena takes 
place, including dewatering, compaction, ce nentation and 
even removal of part of the rock by subsequent solution. 
Rock dissolved in one area may be transported and precipi- 
tated in another area. Concretions are distinct objects be- 
cause they are formed by processes different from those occur- 
ring in the surrounding sediment. 

Thus, mud is transformed into shale by dewatering, com- 
paction and little or no cementation. However, the precipi- 
tation of calcium carbonate among the clay minerals around 
isolated centers forms concretionary bodies which are harder 
than the enclosing shale. In lime muds, the precipitation of 
silica around nuclei results in the formation of chert or flint 
nodules or, in other words, concretions enclosed by limestone. 

Many varied shapes and sizes of concretions exist. They 
may have a nucleus, commonly a fossil. When a fossil is pres- 
ent, it appears that the organic remains were the cause for the 
growth of the concretion. The familiar concretions of cherts 
and flints consist of fine-grained silica, generally of irregular 
shape. However, some beautiful spherical cherty concretions 
have been collected. 


Concretions in many fascinating shapes are displayed in Hall 34 
and at the east end of Hall 37, where fossil-like formations are 
distinguished from true fossils. 

Concretions, common in the Illinois shales, are well known 
to amateur collectors and rock hunters. After being cut and 
polished, some specimens from the Illinois shales are, in my 
opinion, especially beautiful, because they have cracks filled 
with calcite or other minerals. Other celebrated concretions 
are found in the famous Mazon Creek localities in Illi- 
nois. These contain many delicately preserved ferns, horse- 
shoe crabs, and unusual soft-bodied animals. The most un- 
usually shaped concretions are found in glacial soils, and 
many of this type have been found in the state parks of north- 
ern Illinois. 

The claystone concretions from Vermont, Connecticut 
and upper Michigan are the most eye-catching. They are 
a composite of small discs, formed from spheres which have 
coalesced in the rock. How beautiful and interesting they 
can be is illustrated on the cover. 

Geology Tours Set 
For Adult Members 

The country in and around Clhicago is relatively rich in geo- 
logical sites. Many interesting locations are to be found with- 
in the limits of the metropolitan area. For example, in rocks 
over four hundred million years old coral reefs can be seen, 
with the characteristic marine faunas of semi-tropical seas of 
Silurian times. Upon this very old bedrock the geologically 
young glacial sediments were deposited. The glaciers left 
millionsof tons of unconsolidated material that formed ridges 
called moraines, with undrained ponds and marshes. These 
ridges were subsequently cut and dissected by rivers that left 
behind wide and flat channels. 

A few miles from the great congestion of the metropolis a 
somewhat different geologic record can be seen. To the west 
the sandstone and limestones half a billion years old have 
been gently deformed, and thus exhibit the evidence of the 
enormous forces that continually change the face of the earth's 
crust. This spectacular fold is in the picturesque canyon of 
the Illinois River and its tributaries in LaSalle County. 

To the south the activities of the coal miner have changed 
the topography of the land and laid bare the coal. This rep- 
resents a remnant of a great swamp along the shore of the sea 
that existed in Illinois some three hundred million years ago. 

Farther to the southeast there is a puzzling structure of 
disturbed rocks, supposed by some to have been caused by a 
meteoritic impact. 

A series of four one-day field trips for adult Museum 
Members will be led by M. H. Nitecki, Assistant Curator 
of Fossil Invertebrates, to these areas during the Saturdays of 
October. The series will begin on October 7th, at 8 A.M. 
and the orientation meeting will be held on Saturday, Sep- 
tember 30th at 11 A.M. Because private transportation will 
be used, the group will be limited in size. The trips will be 
free of charge. Those interested please write Raymond Foun- 
dation, Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at 
Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois 60605 for an application 
blank. Reservations are limited in number and will be ac- 
cepted in the order in which they are received. Applicants 
accepted will receive a confirmation card which will serve as 
their admission ticket. 

Associate Honored by American 
Federation of Mineral Societies 

Mr. Walter Kean, Associate in Mineralogy, has recently 
won the highest award obtainable in the United States for 
his gem cutting work. In the last few years Mr. Kean has 
won top awards in the Chicago area and in the Midwest 
Regional competitions, and this year he entered his work on 
a national level. At the annual convention of the American 

Federation of Mineral Societies, held at the Washington 
Hilton, Washington D. C, from June 29 to July 2nd, Mr. 
Kean received the trophy for the best gem faceting work in 
the U. S. 

Field Museum is particularly fortunate in having a close 
association with Mr. Kean. He is currently planning some 
special exhibits of gem stones for the coming year. 


in the Piedmont ^one of northwest Iraq, in the area near Kirkuk 
on the map. 

Bones of Palegawra 

by Priscilla Turnbull 

Everyone knows that anthropological expeditions are usu- 
ally concerned with recovering the bits and pieces from an- 
cient cultures. Field workers carefully collect fragments of 
pottery, flint tools and flakes, beads, and even cloth shreds. 
Human burials are painstakingly excavated and removed to 
a museum for study. The walls of ancient mud villages are 
uncovered and reconstructed, and ashes from long-cold 
hearths are sifted. Often the bones of animals hunted and 
eaten by the former residents are among the most numerous 
elements present. Lists of these animals associated with man's 
life are usually published along with the details of the exca- 
vation, particularly when the site is a prehistoric one. Occa- 
sionally, a detailed study of these bones is made, as much for 
its zoological importance as for the light it sheds on the past 
environment, and for the understanding it yields of the way 
of life of the ancient people. 

For some time I have been involved in such a study in a 
field midway between paleontology and zoology, osteo-ar- 
chaeology, which perfectly illustrates the interdependence of 
these disciplines. The materials I deal with were collected 
in the Near East, chiefly in Iraq, by the Oriental Institute 
(University of Chicago) Iraq-Jarmo Expeditions of the 1950's. 
These journeys were under the general direction of Dr. Rob- 
ert J. Braidwood, and their purpose was to investigate and 
excavate the earliest settled villages known to date. The 
various sites — caves, rock shelters, open air, and settled vil- 
lages — were inhabited during that vastly important and crit- 
ical period between the end of the Pleistocene ice age and the 
beginning of historic time a few thousand years ago. 

Photo 1>» the Prehistoric Project — Orieittal Imtitute 

One of these sites, a cave known as Palegawra, has been 
especially important because of the large amount of bone 
found in it. Based on comparable horizons at Shanidar for 
which Carbon-14 dates exist, it has been estimated that Pale- 
gawra cave was occupied about 11,500 years ago. The cave 
lies in the foothills of the Zagros Mountains, northeast of 
Baghdad, in the Baranand Dagh, one of a series of Cretaceous 
anti-clinal ridges. It is a small cave, measuring about nine 
feet high at the mouth, with an interior 1 5 feet deep by 1 8 feet 
across. Palegawra's absolute elevation is 3,250 feet, and it 
lies about 230 feet above the valley floor. It faces south, 
overlooking the Bazian valley in the bottom of which a stream 
drains toward, but rarely reaches, a main tributary of the 
Tigris River. 

Many people have been involved in the excavation of this 
little cave. Dr. Bruce Howe of Harvard University, Asso- 
ciate Director of the expedition, acting on behalf of the Bagh- 
dad School of the American Schools of Oriental Research, 
first tested Palegawra in 1951 and excavated it in 1955 with 
the help of Kurdish field workmen. Dr. Charles A. Reed, 
zoologist with the expedition, now Professor of Anthropology 
and Biological Sciences at the University of Illinois at Chi- 
cago Circle, visited the site during excavation and was in 
charge of the preparation and study of the faunal remains. 
I have been responsible for the laboratory study of the mam- 
malian bones, which have now been cataloged in the Field 
Museum's paleontological collection in the Department of 
Geology. The Iraq-Jarmo Expedition had many other mem- 
bers — specialists in geology and botany, pottery experts, tool 
specialists — all involved in aspects of the expedition work. To 
describe, assess, and integrate the work accomplished at a 
score of sites will take many years and many publications. 

The people who took shelter in Palegawra 11,500 years 
ago were hunters; they did not cultivate crops or raise do- 
mestic animals. Perhaps they followed the wandering herds 
of game or came into the valley occasionally seeking food. 
It is not likely that the cave was occupied continually for long 
periods of time; it is too small to be comfortable for more than 
a few people, and the archaeologists found no hearths that 
would have provided warmth in winter. Besides, the cave 
drips with water during rains, and winter time can be very wet 
indeed in northeast Iraq. The cave would offer a cool retreat 
from hot summer sun, however, and temporary shelter for a 
small group or family at any time. 

The human artifacts, that is, the tools, flint projectile 
points, scrapers, etc., are of a microlithic type of assemblage 
that anthropologists term Zarzian. It is usually very difficult 
or impossible to identify the animals from which the bone 
tools are made, though I have identified beads made of in- 
cisor teeth of deer. It is the unworked but broken, charred, 
and gnawed bone that is of importance to this study. Prob- 
ably between 5,000-10,000 bones — bits of skulls, fragments 
of ribs, ends of limb-bones, pieces of shoulder and hip bones, 
fingers, toes, and teeth — were collected from Palegawra cave 
and sent back to the Museum for detailed study. 

There are several ways to look at collections from early 
man sites. The cultural anthropologist would consider the 
Palegawra assemblage exceedingly primitive and very an- 


cient. A paleolithic specialist, on the other hand, would look 
upon the Palegav\ ra tool kit as quite advanced. To one whose 
background has been paleontological, as mine has, the mam- 
malian remains are entirely modern; all are from animals 
that exist today, or did until very recently, in the same or 
nearby regions. Perhaps the most peculiar aspect of this type 
of collection, at least to the paleontological eye, is that almost 
all the bones have been broken "unnaturally" as a result of 
man's butchering and cooking. 

Examples of Palegawran equid bones, Equus hemionus. Left side, 
three upper jaw fragments with several teeth in each. Right side, top to 
bottom, end of cannon bone (metapodial) , and first, second and third toe 
bones {phalanges). Many of the bones were more fragmentary and less 
well preserved. 

Many of the bones represent the discarded parts of an- 
cient meals. Others are from scavengers that lived and died 
alongside man — for example, rats and mice. Still other bone 
pieces were casual, chance catches; the birds and turtles, 
though not really game, would have added a tasty bit of vari- 
ety to the diet, The work of sorting, cleaning, cataloging, 
and identifying the bones of Palegawra is now proceeding in 
the laboratories of the Museum. A large per cent of the frag- 
ments lacks diagnostic shape, edge, angle, or curve, and there- 
fore are not identifiable at all. Nevertheless, over 4,000 Pale- 
gawran bones have been identified. 

Among the game (food) mammals, bones of the onager or 
half-ass, Equus hemionus, are the most abundant in the Pale- 
gawra collection, indicating that the cave's visitors were fond 
of "horsemeat." Bone fragments of the large red deer, Cervus 
elaphus; wild sheep, Ovis orientalis; and wild goats, Capra hircus 
aegagrus, are also numerous. Bone pieces identified as belong- 
ing to the pig, Sus scrofa; gazelle, Ga^ella subguUurosa; and 
cattle, Bos primigenius, are also present. Rabbit, pika, fox, 
martin, polecat, badger and cat probably represent occa- 

sional chance food animals. Seven genera of rodents have 
been identified; two genera of insectivores and one bat are 
also recognized. Among non-mammalian animals — various 
birds, small land turtles, at least two genera of land snails, 
and fresh-water crabs — have been identified. 

To the anthropologists, the relative abundance of the vari- 
ous animals is an indication of their economic importance to 
the hunters. To the zoologist, the occurrence of these ani- 
mals in a prehistoric site extends our knowledge of their his- 
tory. For example, the onager in Iraq has been identified in 
decorative motifs within historic time (much more recent 
than 11,500 years ago) and has been reported in herds as 
recently as 1927. Currently, though, it is extinct in that 
country. Now we know definitely that the half-ass lived in 
northeastern Iraq during the period between the latest Pleis- 
tocene and earliest Recent time. Three genera, the pika, 
Ochotona; the hamster, Mesocricetus, and the vole, Arvicola, were 
first reported among the fauna of Iraq by the Palegawra expe- 
dition. We now know they once lived in the Zagros foothills. 
Whether they are now extinct in Iraq, or are simply too clever 
to get trapped, is an open question. Nevertheless, these three 
animals are well known elsewhere in Asia. 

Careful study of the bone fragments can correct miscon- 
ceptions that have existed many years. A species of small 
cattle was assumed to have lived throughout the Near East 
in late prehistoric time. At the first casual glance, some of 
the Palegawra bones were identified as such a species. De- 
tailed study, however, soon indicated that instead of small 
cattle, these animals were large deer. Of course, I do not 
know if all the animals that have been identified as "small 
cattle" in southwestern Asia are deer, but at Palegawra the 
evidence is irrefutable. 

Consideration of the Palegawra fauna gives some strong 
indications about the climate and vegetation of the past. 
The animals identified from the bone fragments could live in 
a climate and setting very similar to those that exist today 
in the Zagros foothills. Dr. Reed believes that this area was 
cooler and dryer during the late prehistoric period. 

Fortunately for the identification of osteo-archaeological 
collections, the Museum is almost unrivaled in the extent of 
comparative materials available. The skulls and jaws in the 
Mammal Division and the skeletons in the Anatomy Division 
are the bases on which students and I can work on "recent" 
fossils from ancient man's garbage dumps. 


October? Into Siberia Raphael Green 

Starting in Samarkand, the ancient capital of Tamerlane, 
this film takes you on a journey across Russia, with stops in 
Tashkent, the largest city of Central Asia, and other historic 
places. You will also see the native peoples of Siberia, the 
Kazakhs, Uzbeks and Tadzhiks, at work on their collective 
farms or textile mills and shopping in their bazaars and side- 
walk stalls. 

October 1 4 

Tales of the Blue Danube 

Philip Walker 

All the sights along the Danube from its 
mouth at the Black Sea to its source in 
the German Black Forest, are high- 
lighted. In the delta, you see fishing 
villages, and a short way upstream, 
Bucharest, "the Paris of East Europe." 
The trip also includes a visit to Sofia, the 
capital of Bulgaria, and Yugoslavia's 
capital, Belgrade. After navigating 
through the famous Iron Gate of the 
Carpathian Mountains, it's on to Hun- 
gary. High points of the film are the visit 
to a traditional Viennese wine restau- 
rant and inn, and the beautiful Wachau 
Valley with its castles and monasteries. 

October 21 Iran Nicol Smith 

The vivid distinctions of the old and new 
features of Iran are emphasized in this 
film-lecture. Teheran's buildings and 
university give it the look of a modern 
city; the splendid ruins of Persepolis and 
the nearby tombs of Cyrus the Great 
and the Achaemenian kings epitomize 
the historical image of Iran. The oil 
fields developed in the Persian Gulf and 
the immense refinery at Abadan, along 
with the new port now under construc- 
tion. Bandar Abbas, are parts of the new 

face of Iran. The region of Kurdistan, however, reveals the 
native villages that have maintained their customs and ways 
of living for over a thousand years. 

October 28 NorSB Adventure Hjordis K. Parker 

The Viking spirit pervades this panoramic view of Norway, 
from Lapland to Oslo. You will see the importance of winter 
sports to the hearty Norwegians; hiking, mountaineering, 
tobogganing and most of all, skiing. The older cities still 
bear the mark of their Viking founders. Trondheim, estab- 
lished in 997 by the Vikings' first Christian King, displays its 
original cathedral, and Bergen, the 1 3th century capital, re- 
tains its medieval palace. 

November 4 The Philippines Clifford J. Kamen 
This documentary shows the rich diversity in the culture and 
natural wonders of the Philippines, a nation of 7,100 islands. 
The modern port and capital, Manila, contains the old walled 
city, Intramuros, and the St. Augustine Church, built in 1599 
by the Spanish settlement. In the northern part of Luzon 
Island, you see Pagsanjan Falls and ride the rapids in a dug- 
out. In this region also is Taal Volcano, with two concentric 
lakes in its crater. To the south on Cebu Island is the cross 
erected by Magellan on the first journey around the world. 

Fall Film-Lecture Series 

The 1967 Fall Film-Lecture Series features the eight programs listed below. They 
will be held in the James Simpson Theatre of Field Museum at 2:30 P.M. on 
successive Saturdays beginning October 7 through November 25. Reserved seats 
for Museum members will be held until 2:25. 

November 11 Men Against the Ice BJorn Stalb 

Opens with highlights of a 31 -day journey across the Green- 
land Ice-Cap, with its treacherous blizzards and ice-crevasses. 
It also takes you along on an expedition to the North Pole, 
the most ambitious since Admiral Peary's in 1 909. The docu- 
mentary reveals a new type of adventure, one in which men 
equipped with the latest technical equipment for Arctic navi- 
gation and radio communication still must rely on their 
courage and ingenuity to survive the dangers of the Arctic. 


November 18 

Red China 

Jens Bjerre BOOK REVIEW 

This authentic, uncensored fihn-lecture shows what is going 
on in Red China today. It reveals as much as possible about 
this vast land in which one of the most dramatic revolutions 
in history is taking place. You'll learn about China's an- 
cient history, the revolution and the changing life of 730 
million people, one-quarter of the Earth's population. In- 
cluded is an unforgettable trip from Moscow on the Great 
Siberian Railway across Mongolia (the Gobi Desert) to 
China, and you will have opportunity to follow the life of 
the Chinese people in the country and in the big cities; 
Peking, Hangchow, Shanghai, Soochow. You'll see the 
traces of an ancient culture in temples, palaces, old Chinese 
art, and one of the wonders of the world: The Great Wall. 
Also, the collective farms, workers-brigades, factories, schools, 
kindergartens, homes, beautiful landscapes and gardens. 
And you will witness the enormously powerful propaganda — 
100,000 Chinese in a political demonstration. 

November 25 England and Wales 

Gerald Hooper 

You'll explore many places that travelers know well and a 
few that are far off the beaten paths in England and Wales. 
Included are the eminent buildings and picturesque canals 
of London, the Zero Meridian and Naval College in Green- 
wich, and at Gravesend, the burial place of Princess Poca- 
hontas. In Wales you'll see the principality's capital, Cardiff, 
and Coventry, renowned for Lady Godiva's visit. Known 
for its roses and magnificent scenery, Wales is shown at its 
best in this film, particularly at the "Trooping to Colour," 
with all its splendor and Royal pomp. 

Guatemala Tour 
Still Open 

Field Museum's Guatemala Tour still has a very few open- 
ings before it reaches the limit number of 60 persons, accord- 
ing to Phil Clark, Tour Leader. The Tour, October 27 
through November 12, will be broken into two groups of 
30 each, once in Guatemala. It will be accompanied by 
experts in botany and archaeology and will take bird walks 
and hear talks by leading Guatemalan specialists in various 
fields. Besides stops at Indian villages, Spanish colonial ruins 
and archaeological zones, the Tour will visit private Guate- 
malan gardens. Price is $1260, including a $400 tax de- 
ductible donation to Field Museum. Information and res- 
ervations are available from Field Museum's Guatemala 
Tour, Field Museum. 

Shell Collecting: An Illustrated History 

by S. Peter Dance 

There are rare occasions in literature when one book takes 
a field of knowledge, previously existing as unrelated trivia 
scattered wildly through an untold number of obscure sources, 
and welds these facts into a sharply delineated story. Peter 
Dance has done this for shell collecting. The extent of his 
scholarship can be appreciated by his citation of 337 refer- 
ences and his apology for the brevity of the bibliography. 
This is a book that could only have been written by utilizing 
the vast bibliographic sources of the British Museum and by a 
person with an encyclopaedic knowledge of and a profound 
love for the magnificent historical collections of Europe. Other 
people can and will amend this history in minor respects, but 
it will not be superseded or surpassed. 

Unfortunately, this book will be little appreciated by the 
average shell collector. It is not a handbook for identifica- 
tion. It is not a manual of collecting techniques. It does not 
name active shell dealers or try to indicate current shell prices. 
It does not (except indirectly) mention scientists or scientific 
studies. It is not a history of malacology. It is not a book 
that would have been written by an American or by an ama- 
teur collector. 

Simply and clearly, it is a history of shell collecting from 
the Roman Empire to World War I. Focusing partly on 
species highly prized at one time or another, partly on the 
curiosity cabinets of earlier centuries and partly on the great 
scientific collections of the 19th century. Dance presents a 
kaleidoscopic view of the changing fashions and values in 
shell collections. Since shell collecting has been connected 
intimately with the description of moUusks, personal glimpses 
of many names familiar to shell collectors — Lamarck, Bru- 
guiere. Reeve, Sowerby, Cuming, Gray, Broderip, for exam- 
ple — are given and will be of interest to all. Historical reci- 
tation has not been allowed to interfere with personal opinion. 
Thus, some plates in one book are "shockingly engraved," a 
book presents "a turgid but illuminating account of the tri- 
umphs and disappointments of a shell collector in the field," 
and one famous book contains "nightmarish illustrations." 

Perhaps the best preparation for appreciation of this book 
is to read the last bit of Dance's historical survey — "Today's 
collector is a very different character from the collector of a 
century ago; his collecting activities are more specialized, his 
collection is usually smaller and he is a better judge of good 
and bad material. He does not rely exclusively on auctions, 
dealers and personal wealth for his shells, but either collects 
them himself (and contributes many interesting facts useful 
to science in the process), or relies on the postman to bring 
them to him. But in one respect he differs in no way from his 
predecessors of a hundred or even a thousand years ago : he 
finds enchantment, solace or enlightenment in the contempla- 
tion and study of shells." I hope many of you will find the 
same in contemplation of this fascinating book. 

— Alan Solem, Curator, Lower Invertebrates 



LowRY INDIAN RUINS, located in the southwest corner of Colorado, has recently 
been designated a National Historic Landmark. This prehistoric village and re- 
ligious center was first excavated in 1930-31 by Paul S. Martin, Chief Curator 
Emeritus of the Anthropology Department of Field Museum. The ruins are about 
800 years old. Roof beams have been dated to 1090, and bits of evidence indicate 
that 50 to 60 people lived there from the middle of the 11th century until the great 
drought of 1276-99. 

The Indian village has the remains of a three-story apartment type building 
constructed with various kinds of stone and brick. Martin estimates it contained 
from 37 to as many as 50 rooms. Many artifacts were found in the ruin, including 
different styles of pottery, projectile points, knives, scrapers, needles, manos and 
metates. Some of these are on display in the Museum's Southwest Indian Hall 
(Hall 7). 

The University of Colorado's Anthropology Department and the Bureau of 
Land Management are now preparing the 3.2 acre hill-top site as a public recrea- 
tion-education center. 

Dr. Martin has been with the Museum since 1929. He was chief Curator of 
Anthropology from 1934 to 1964, when he was appointed Chief Curator Emeritus. 


September hours: open 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. 
every day. 

September 8 — 24 Exhibit: Drawings by Students of the Junior School of the 

Art Institute. About 50 color illustrations and constructions of Museum 

exhibits made by artists seven to 14 years old. Hall 9. 
September Through November Fall Journey: Your Day in Ancient Rome. A 

self-guided tour through exhibits that illustrate many aspects of daily living at 

the time of the Roman Empire. 
October 7 Film-Lecture: Into Siberia. The first of the Fall Series. For details 

see page 6. 
October 10 — November 26 Exhibit: Silent Cities: An Architect's View of 

Ancient Mexico and the Maya. A display of photographs of Mexican and 

Mayan temples and monuments made by architect Norman Carver, Jr. Hall 9. 

Shell Club, Sept. 10 and Oct. 8, 2 p.m. 

Nature Camera Club, Sept. 12 and Oct. 10, 7:45 p.m. 

Orchid Society, Sept. 17, 2 p.m. 

Audubon Society, Oct. 4, 7 p.m. 



Field museum has received good news from the Internal Revenue Service, a source 
often associated with another kind of news. By a ruling recently issued. Museum 
donors may give gifts which will be deductible to the extent of 30% of the donor's 
adjusted gross income for any given year. Heretofore, museums have not been 
eligible for the 30% deduction limit which had been granted a number of years 
ago to such organizations as universities, churches, and hospitals. The origin of 
this welcome legislation and subsequent ruling is President Kennedy's Tax Mes- 
sage to Congress of 1963. In this message he stated that the increased deduction 
for all charities "which are publicly supported and controlled . . . will prove 
advantageous to the advancement of highly desirable activities in our communi- 
ties. ..." Under resulting regulations, a tax-exempt museum is considered to be 
"publicly supported" if it normally receives a substantial part of its support from 
direct or indirect contributions from the general public or from a governmental unit. 
As Field Museum turns increasingly to its members and others in the com- 
munity for financial support, it will be of great importance that donors can deduct 
the additional 10% over and beyond the general 20% limitation on deductibility 
of contributions to charity. 



Roosevelt Rd. & Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, Illinois 60605 

Founded by Marshall Field, 7893 

Lester Armour 
Harry O. Bercher 
William McCormick Blair 
Bowen Blair 

William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Joseph N. Field 
Marshall Field 
Paul W. Goodrich 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Samuel Insult, Jr. 
Henry P. Isham 
Hughston M. McBain 
Remick McDowell 
J. Roscoe Miller 
William H. Mitchell 
James L. Palmer 
John T. Pirie, Jr. 
John Shedd Reed 
John G. Searle 
John M. Simpson 
Gerald A. Sivage 
Edward Byron Smith 
William Swartchild, Jr. 
Louis Ware 
E. Leland Webber 
J. Howard Wood 


William V. Kahler 


James L. Palmer, President 
Clifford C. Gregg, First Vice-President 
Joseph N. Field, Second Vice-President 
Bowen Blair, Third Vice-President 
Edward Byron Smith, 

Treasurer and Assistant Secretary 
E. Leland Webber, Secretary 

director OF THE MUSEUM 

E. Leland Webber 

CHIEF curators 

Donald Collier, 

Department of Anthropology 
Louis O. Williams, 

Department of Botany 
Rainer ^angerl, 

Department of Geology 
Austin L. Rand 

Department of ^oology 


Edward G. Nash, Managing Editor 





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Volume 38, Number 10 October, 1967 

Pyramid of the Sun at teotihuacan. A view of the central stairway is shown on the cover. This stone-faced structure 200 feet high and 700 feet on a 
side was the base for a temple, now disappeared. The ancient city flourished from A.D. 100 to TOO and at its height contained 50,000 to 100,000 inhabitants. 

Mr. Carver, the recipient of two Fulbright Awards, is a prac- 
ticing architect in Kalamazoo, Michigan. He is also the 
author of the pictographic essays Form and Space of Japa- 
nese Architecture and Silent Cities: Mexico and the Maya 
A photographic chronicle of ancient Mayan and Mexican 
architecture, based on Carver's book on that subject, will go 
on display in Hall 9 Gallery on October 10. Both hook 
and exhibit developed from his conviction that the visual qual- 
ities oj this architecture are too often buried in excessive ar- 
chaeological and historical detail, and that the powerful forms 
are too often reduced to incidental aspects. The original 
preparation of "Silent Cities" involved more than four years 
of research and travel in Mexico, Guatemala and Honduras. 
From the hundreds of photographs made, 65 have been se- 
lected, along with 14 drawings of the sites, to illustiate 14 
Pre-Columbian cities of architectural distinction. 

Mexico witnessed a succession of cultures spread over almost 
two thousand years, with each centered around a great city. 
The wide range of conditions in which these Mexican cities 
were built included the low, wet jungles of the east coast, the 
dry moonscape of the central plateau, and the high pleasant 
valleys of South Central Mexico. In spite of this range, the 
basic forms and techniques of Mexican culture were only 
slightly modified, and a remarkable unity exists over the 
great stretches of time and space. 

Architectural form is essentially abstract, and its funda- 
mental expressive qualities exist independent of its cultural 
motivations. Despite the diversity of cultures, conditions, 
and details, there is an underlying unity to Mexican and 
Mayan architecture. The functional requirements and the 
technological means were essentially the same. 

The ancient Mexicans and Mayans lacked metal 
tools and the wheel, except as a toy. The materials 
available were stone, a type of cement and stucco. 
The most commonly used masonry consisted of a 
rough facing over a rubble core which was then 
finished with a heavy stucco to provide a smooth 
and paintable surface. The enclosure of space is 
the point of greatest divergence in Mexican and 
Mayan building. Though they have long since 
disappeared, wooden-roofed structures were fre- 
quently used in Mexico and Toltec Chichen Itza 
to span large spaces. Mayan builders, however, 
used wood only in lintels; consequently interiors 
were confined to long, narrow spaces. 

MONTE alban'j commanding position on an isolated group of hills 
at the juncture of several fertile valleys is the reason for its occupation 
from prehistoric times. The central hill of the group was sculpted 
into an acropolis of plazas, pyramids and platforms. 


Functionally, all the "Silent Cities," with the exception of 
Teotihuacin, were not residential or commercial centers, but 
principally served as religious compounds. They were proto- 
type cities, the ceremonial centers intended to awe and over- 
power the beholder. The impact of these large, brilliantly 
colored structures that parted the jungle or capped a plateau 
was a strong force in daily lives of the Mexicans and Mayans. 
These cities did not require the sophistication of Greek or 
Egyptian architecture. Splendor was paramount in the fact 
of their existence, and their existence required only the sim- 
plest geometry to separate them sharply from the background 
and everyday experience of the people. These "Silent Cities," 
with their imposing forms, marked a place where man ap- 
peared to control his destiny and where each generation could 
satisfy its wish for immortality. 

In addition to the dominant temple-pyramids of obvious 
religious purpose, most cities included a variety of additional 
structures whose precise use, except for the ball courts, can 
only be guessed, and the names given them are merely con- 
venient or legendary. These structures, along with the tem- 
ple-pyramids, are seldom located in any discernible proces- 
sional or hieratic spatial order. Rather, by their irregular 
multi-level placement, by their freedom from a rigid overall 
symmetry, the importance and individuality of each is em- 
phasized. These separate and solid masses are the piositive 
elements of the composition and the space becomes what is 
left over, what is staked out by free and emphatic forms. 
Within an overall assymmetry, however, individual com- 
plexes and buildings are nearly always, if loosely, axially 

TiKAL is the greatest Maya city. 
Four lofty temples, like the one shown 
to the left, are placed around a central 

MITLA is unique both in the precision 
of its forms and the absence oj monu- 
mental temple-pyramids. Here archi- 
tectural elegance and control have re- 
placed overwhelming scale as a symbol 
of power. In spite of their more inti- 
mate scale, though, the buildings still 
convey the sense of impenetrable mass. 

PALENQUE is distinguished by 
its carved stone and molded 
stucco signifying its release 
from heavy, monumental style. 

The Puuc style of Mayan are 
chitecture displays a decorative 
motif abstracted from the tied- 
pole walls of the houses. Here 
stone masonry developed such 
precision it was used as veneer. 

ordered. The freedom of this local symmetry further em- 
phasizes the self-contained quality of individual structures. 
The lack of overall order can partly be attributed to the 
growth of these cities by accretion, as over the generations 
buildings were added or enlarged and concepts or plans were 
superseded and revised. 

At TULA these Atlanteanfigures stand atop the Quelzalcoatl pyramid. They were 
once the interior supports of a walled temple. 

Only at TeotihuacSn does a strong axial order, defined 
by the Street of the Dead, appear to have been imposed, and 
all subsequent building ordered by it. One can clearly see 
at TeotihuacSn how such overall order tightens the relation- 
ship of the various structures in space, lessens their individ- 
uality and emphasizes the importance of echoing rhythms. 
The whole composition assumes greater impwrtantfe than its 
parts. At Teotihuac4n perhaps the original architects sensed 
that the scale of the Mexican landscape here demanded this 
vast geometry which resulted in the largest spatial composi- 
tion ever conceived by man. 

Since this architecture presently exists with colors faded 
and the stucco gone, its initial impact and monumentality is 
enhanced by the visible weight of stone piled upwn stone — a 
sense of structure and process that was not conveyed in the 
original. The weight-destroying stucco covering meant that 
the impact depended on sheer size, vividness of color and ar- 
ticiJateness of form. The development of New World archi- 
tectural forms reveals an increasing concern for the nuances 
of their basic shapes. There is growing awareness that articu- 


lated silhouette actually and mystically separates mass from 
environment and experience; that clearly defined and exag- 
gerated corners strengthen the less sure lines and optically 
sharpen the total form; that the insistent horizontality of line, 
plane and shadow unify form; and that carefully propor- 
tioned and contained decoration not only astounds the eye 
but increases the visual separation of facade planes. It is this 
stepped, hovering horizontality of the facade planes and their 
implied mass which reintroduces a sense of weight and struc- 
tural integrity. Even in the occasional use of columns, their 
shape and proportion to the voids continue the implied in- 
tegrity of the solid facade and the impenetrability of the mass. 

UXMAL is not large, nor are its buildings particularly numerous, but their high 
quality and setting combine for a beautifully impressive effect. Erected in the 
Classic period, Uxmal is the masterwork in Mayan architecture. This photo 
shows part of the Nunnery group, in general arrangement and detail related to the 

palaces of Mitla, 
though considerably 
larger and more loosely 
ordered. The Nun- 
nery was named for its 
resemblance to a Span- 
ish convent. It prob- 
ably served as a public 
forum with each build- 
ing representing some 
element of the society. 

Dominating uxmal in its elevated position and majestic size is the Governor'' s 
Palace. It is the supreme achievement of Mayan architecture, the refinement of its 
major tenets, and perhaps the last work at Uxmal. 

Mayan traditions, which began in one of the world's raini- 
est regions, are initially softer and more sculptural than Mex- 
ican forms which have always had a greater precision of shape 
and crispness of edge, developing from the influence of the 
clear, dry light of the Mexican plateau. This same quality 
of precision increases in the Mayan work when it moves into 
the harsh light of Yucatan. 

UXMAL 'i Pyramid of the Magician. 

In Yucatan, Mayan stone masonry develops the precision 
that allows it to be used like finely-cut veneer. The clarity 
of the veneer in turn allows the stucco to be radically thinned, 
or in some cases, to be entirely dispensed with. Decorated 
facades, elsewhere soft-edged stucco, become large scale stone 
mosaics, and as a means of manipulating light and shade, 
become at once more extensive and more geometric. 

The symbolic meanings of most Maya decoration are un- 
known, but it has several architectural eff'ects. First, it obvi- 
ously enriches large areas of otherwise blank surface and 
thereby provides the underlying pattern for coloration of the 
facades. Second, its spell-binding textures and rhythms in- 
crease the sense of monumental presence and magnificence. 
Third, within the limited vocabulary of Mayan architecture, 
changes in decoration are one of the few ways similar forms 
could be strongly varied. Finally, consciously or not, the 
slight added three-dimensionality of upper facades increases 
the feeling of weight and bearing on the plain base, intro- 
ducing a rudimentary sense of structure to the mass. 

CHICHEN rrzA, the superbly proportioned Temple of the Warriers in its profile 
recalls Teotihuacan, but its serpent columns and the columned market that sur- 
rounds its base seem a duplication of Tula, the supposed Toltec capital. 


In both Mexican and Mayan architecture, the conflict 
between the more precise geometry implied by the masonry 
and the freer plasticity allowed by the stucco. Early the plas- 
tic qualities of the heavy stucco dominate and only later, as 
stone cutting becomes more skillful and stucco thins and ar- 
ticulate form becomes of greater concern, does the precision 
of the masonry assert itself. 





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Photo by Mexican Tourism Council 

i Vamonos a 

by Phil Clark 

Plumed Serpent Head grins from Quetzalcoatl Temple, Teotihuacan, 

Mexico casts a unique spell— so extraordinary it can only be capsuled by a popular Mexican 
aphorism: "i Mexico, no hay dos!" There are not two in the world, yet there are many Mex- 
icos within Mexico — the Indian and the Spanish, the stand-pat primitive and the stridently 
modern, the traditional and the revolutionary, all bound together in robust, emphatic, insistent 

For being Mexican is like being nothing else. Where else would you find a skyscraper covered 
with a flame and purple mosaic of a feathered serpent? And who else would create a feath- 
ered serpent, in any age? 

Yet Mexico is more than a hard Indian hand in an elaborate Spanish glove. It is an equally 
indigenous Nature: it is spiky century plants twisted against desert hills, or sinuous limbs of 
ceiba that cast bold shadows on rippling savanna grass, or scarlet salvia under the Montezuma 
pines high in the Sierras, or a tangle of giant leaves and flowers crowding the shores of a jungle 
lake. These scenes are all and equally Mexico, and all contain the color that makes magenta 
and orange natural partners in Mexican art; all provide the settings so boldly dramatic that 
pyramids like Teotihuacan, Xochicaico, Uxmal and Chichen Itza complete, not jostle, the land- 
scape. So be prepared, on your tour April 4 to 21, to be bewitched . . . 

All Tour photos by Phil Clark 
except when otherwise indicated. 


1 Thursday, April 4— Fly from O'Hare Airport on one of Mexi- 
cana's new jet airliners, arriving late afternoon in Mexico City, 
where you inspect the Plaza of Three Cultures. The Plaza tells 
an abbreviated history, with its Spanish colonial church standing 
on the rennains of an Aztec pyramid, in the midst of the ultra- 
modern Nonoalco-Tlateloico housing development. You unpack 
in Maria Isabel Hotel, located in a quiet section of the elegant 
Paseo de la Reforma close to the shopping and museum centers, 
then attend a Welcome Dinner with mariachi music, followed by 
a talk on the Museo Nacional de Antropologia — one of the world s 
outstanding new museums. 

Cacti add bizarre note to the j\attonal Botanical Garden. 

Tlaloc, the Rain God, guards Anthropology Aiuseum entrance 

2 Friday. April 5 — The story of the cloud-burst that climaxed 
the placement of Tlaloc, the 180-ton figure of the rain god, 
at the National Museum's entrance is a typical example of the 
way Mexico's past mingles with the present in the modern build- 
ing, opened in September 1964. Your tour here begins in the 
Museum theater where pyramids, temples, and whole civilizations 
literally rise up out of the floor. The same illusion of the living 
past goes with you through the Museum's halls. Many of the 
exhibits include temples and huge monoliths, like the great Aztec 
calendar stone and the Olmec heads, which are arranged in the 
outdoor sections of the Museum. You will take the dark descent 
into a reconstruction of Palenque's tomb, and in the ethnology 
section, see life-like dancers representing the Maya, Huastec, 
Mixtec and Zapotec peoples. Later, in the City's exclusive Lomas 
section where Spanish Colonial and Mexican modern architecture 
uniquely blend, you visit the gardens of Bruno Pagliai and his 
wife. Merle Oberon, and Mr. and Mrs. Luis Menocal Jr. 

Momiced library created by Juan 0^ Gorman. 

3 Saturday, April 6— This morning you see some of the world's 
most original architecture at the always colorful, sometimes 
bizarre, campus of the National University of Mexico. Here is 
Juan O'Gorman's mosaic-covered library. Diego Rivera's relief 
murals that cover the stadium, and numerous other buildings 
that 180 of Mexico's leading architects and engineers erected in 
the 1950's. At this season, the campus is given added color by 
the flowering coral trees. You preview Mexico's plantlife in the 
University's botanical garden and recently completed orchid caves 
where over 800 varieties grow. You also shop in the arts and 
crafts market. Bazaar Sabado, then combine a picnic lunch in the 
lava fields with a visit to Cuicuiico, a cone-like structure that 
antedates the Aztec Age as much as the Aztec does ours. During 
the afternoon you are poled in a flower-covered boat along the 
ancient canals of Xochimiico ... in the evening, entertained at 
Hacienda Los Morales, renowned for its singers. 


4 Palm Sunday. April 7 — You breakfast in Sanborn's House of 
Tiles, then visit the Church of San Francisco to observe the 
items of ornately woven palms on sale outside. You find Mexi- 
ico's famous Ballet Folklorico is at its best in its home theater, 
Palacio de Bellas Artes. After the colorful performance — in- 
digenous dances with motifs taken from all regions of Mexico — 
you view some of the country's greatest art work: murals by 
Jose Clemente Orozco, Diego Rivera, David Alfaro Siquieros and 
Rufino Tamayo along with paintings by Jose M. Velasco and 
others. In a neighborhood that purveys the Spanish Colonial 
charm of San Angel, you lunch, and just up the cobbled street 
are invited into the house and gardens of Ismael Pizarro Suarez. 
The next stops are in the Pedregal, at the modern house and lava 
rock garden of the Melvin 0. Lundahls and at the vividly mosaiced 
house-in-a-cave of Helen and Juan O'Gorman. 

5 Monday, April S— Just north of Mexico City you visit the 
first and largest city of the ancient New World, Teotihuacan, 
a metropolis which at its height was larger than Imperial Rome. 
Teotihuacan's Pyramid of the Sun, shown on the cover of this 
Bulletin, is as broad at its base as the great Egyptian Pyramid of 
Cheops. The ornately carved temple of the Plumed Serpent God, 
Quetzalcoatl, is a grand achievement in the integration of sculp- 
ture and architecture. A large portion of this ancient city, includ- 
ing the Street of the Dead, has been restored since 1962. On 
the return to Mexico City, you stop at Roman Catholicism's 
most important shrine in the Western hemisphere, the massive 
Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe. 

Indians battle Spaniards in Diego Rivera's murals. 

Photographers delight in newly restored Temple of Mari- 
posas, Teotihuacan. 

Photo by Mtxieana Airiineii 

Private gardens gleam with brilliant color in 
Mexican Capital. 

6 Tuesday, April 9 — A gracious castle, once a summer palace for the 
Spanish Viceroys, stands on the Hill of Chapultepec. Here, in 1 847 
Mexican cadets fought the invading U. S. Army, and from the same 
heights. Empress Carlota watched Emperor Maximilian ride from the 
National Palace. Many of Mexico's presidents made their homes here, 
and now you find it brings its own rich history to light in the throne 
rooms, republican council halls and great historical murals, including one 
recently completed by Juan O'Gorman. After lunch at the hotel, you 
pack and set out by bus, stopping at the City's great central square to 
see the National Cathedral and National Palace, where Rivera painted 
important murals. Then you head south through pine-covered mountains 
to Cuernavaca. This subtropical city is, at this season, ablaze with bou- 
gainvillea and flaring masses of orange royal poincianas, with airy blue 
trumpets of jacaranda in contrast. Your hotel, the Casino de la Selva, 
is set in a tropical garden with mosaiced swimming pool and lobbies 
decorated by Jorge Gonzalez Camarena, Jose Reyes Meza and Francisco 
Icaza. The evening is for listening to the music of strolling cancioneros 
in the town's central plaza. 


7 Wednesday, April 70— During the morning, you 
visit the Spanish Colonial house and garden of 
Colonel and Mrs. Pedro Chapa, who will show you 
their antiques and art treasures. Their garden, styled 
after Spanish landscapes, contains a variety of tropical 
plants. After lunch at the garden restaurant. Las 
Mananitas, you stop at the Cathedral of Morelos where 
Bishop Sergio Mendes Arceo, a strong supporter of 
the Vatican Council's Spirit of Aggiornamento, has 
created a powerful blend of modern and early Colonial 
church styles. You also view Rivera's famous murals 
at the Palace of Cortez. 

8 Holy Thursday, April 1 7— On the way to Taxco 
this morning, you investigate some of the most 
mysterious ruins in Mexico— Xochicaico, a group of 
white pyramids baking in the hot, brown, desert moun- 
tains. On an isolated hilltop stands the low, profusely 
decorated Pyramid of the Plumed Serpent. The pyra- 
mid contains motifs typical of Teotihuacano, Toltec 
and Maya cultures and perhaps commemorated a con- 
ference on the calendar held by Middle American 
religious leaders. You stay at the Hotel Santa Prisca 
just off Taxco 's main square where it overlooks this 
mountainside town of silver craftsmen, cobbled streets, 
ornate churches and strong traditionalist religion. In 
the afternoon you peruse the silver shops and by eve- 
ning watch the awesome procession of thousands of 
men, women and children carrying candles through the 
winding streets. Many in the procession are masked 
in black, and hundreds drag heavy chains or carry 
crosses, often made of thorny branches weighing as 
much as 1 50 pounds, strapped to their bleeding backs. 
They march slowly behind images of Christ, while 
drums sound a funereal rhythm. 

9 Good Friday, April 12 — This morning the proces- 
sion bears the figure of the Suffering Christ 
through the streets. An image of Saint Veronica stiffly 
hands the Lord the handkerchief with which, accord- 
ing to tradition. He wiped His face. The Three Marys, 
images borne from nearby churches, say farewell. 
Then Pilate, a living man dressed for the role, reads 
an official order for the crucifixion, and the people 
carry it out, using an image of the Crucified Christ. 
You return by bus to Mexico City. 

1 C\ ^^^^'^d^y ^^^ Glorious, April 13 — A morning 
I w flight takes you to Oaxaca City, where during 
the forenoon you see the burning of the Judases, a 
Saturday the Glorious tradition, and visit the market, 
famous for its black pottery and handloomed black 
and white woolen sarapes. After lunch at the garden 
hotel, Victoria, you drive to Monte Alban, where the 
ancient Oaxacans leveled off the top of the mountain 
and built temples and pyramids. Here are ruins rang- 
ing from the 6th century B.C. up to the 16th century. 

(Continued on page 13) 

recent acquisitions — anthropology 

Pre-Columbian Mexican Art 

Recently Mr. and Mrs. Raymond J. VVielgus gave the 
Museum two important and beautiful works from ancient 
Mexico. These two specimens will go on display in October. 

One of the objects is a basalt head of a boy or young man 
in classic Aztec style, believed to come from Texcoco in the 
V'alley of Mexico. This sculpture, which is in excellent con- 
dition except for some battering on the nose, belongs to the 
somewhat rare, naturalistic strain of Aztec sculpture, char- 
acterized in representations of human figures and animals, 
especially dogs. In the more common type, symbolic sculp- 
ture, Aztec artists were concerned with the depiction of 
deities and the portrayal of religious symbolism. This head 
was not broken from a complete figure, but was sculpted 
separately, a rare occurrence in Aztec art. Judging from 
the style, it probably was made in the late 15th century. 

The other new specimen is a rare tripod bowl, 6}/^ inches 
in diameter, decorated in the "paint-cloisonne" technique. 
The designs, in six colors, show the plumed serpent in typ- 
ically flamboyant Toltec style. The bowl is supposed to 
have been found in TeotihuacSn, on the northeastern edge 
of the Valley of Mexico. This great city was abandoned 
and already in ruins by Toltec times (a.d. 900-1200), but 
its renown persisted and the Toltecs used it as a burial place. 
The specimen may well have come from a Toltec grave at 
Teotihuacan, though it probably was made in Western 
Mexico in the States of Sinaloa or Nayarit. This verdict is 
based on the facts that the tripod bowl is a West Mexican, 
not Toltec, type and that "paint-cloisonne" pottery vessels 
were common in Sinaloa during the Toltec period. 

An unusual feature of this bowl is its two layers of deco- 
ration; a second coating of alfresco plaster, or more likely 
lacquer, was placed over the original lacquer-cloisonne de- 
sign, much as Toltec and Aztec pyramids were remodelled 
and covered over periodically, perhaps at the end of a 52- 
year calendrical cycle. The second (outer) coating of dec- 
oration was in bad condition when Mr. Wielgus acquired 
the bowl. Except for a few key areas, he removed the second 
layer to reveal the first in its beautiful condition. 

It is reasonable to speculate that the vessel was made in 
Sinaloa and decorated by a local artist strongly influenced 
by Toltec symbolism. Later it was taken to the Valley of 
Mexico and redecorated by a Toltec artist, less a master of 
the "paint-cloisonn^" technique than the original artist. 
Finally, it was placed in a grave at Teotihuac&n. 

— Donald Collier, CfiieJ Curator, Anthropology 



In the Anthropology 
Department Charles 
Newlin, of Reed Col- 
lege, worked with the 
Paleolithic and Neolithic collection. Advised by Dr. Glen 
Cole, Chuck sorted through the drawers of stone tools which 
were collected for the Museum in the 1930's. Chuck meas- 
ured and grouped them into such categories as hammer 
stones, cutting knives and other implements manufactured 
by the prehistoric men. 

Though Chuck's major field of interest is social anthro- 
polog>% he will follow up his summer's experience in Pale- 
olithic and Neolithic anthropology with course work on these 
periods when he returns to Reed. Like most of the Shinner 
Scholars, he emphasizes the value of working with all the re- 
sources available at the Museum, the collections, curators, 
staff and students, as well as the library facilities. 

Kenneth Brecher was also selected to work in the Anthro- 
pology Department, but tending the collections held little 
fascination for him. After working a few weeks with the 
American Indian artifacts collection, he created an alter- 
nate program for his Museum work. With Chief Curator 
Donald Collier's approval. Ken left the storage rooms to 
look into the Indian communities in Chicago for newly- 
made artifacts and Indians who could give first-hand reports 
on their tribal dances and crafts and personal accounts of 
the customs they practiced. Ken talked to many Indians 
and experts on American Indian culture and anthropology. 
He also corresponded with representatives on several res- 
ervations. This approach to American Indian studies signi- 
fies just one of the unexpected values that have come out of 
the Shinner Scholarship Program. 

Unfortunately, Ken 
will not be around to 
carry on with the pro- 
gram he has sug- 
gested. Having grad- 
uated from Cornell, 
he will be going to 
Oxford this fall on a 
Rhodes Scholarship, 
where he will con- 
tinue to study anthro- 

Alberta Blumin, a comparative literature major at the Uni- 
versity of California at Berkeley, was given comparisons to 
make in another field during her summer at the Museum. 
From a rock pile that Dr. William Turnbull brought back 
from his fieldtrip to the Southwest, Alberta separated out 
the small black bits which will be analyzed in the search for 
bone fragments of the earliest mammals. Although her 
major field of interest did not overlap with Museum studies. 
Alberta had developed a fine skill last year in a paleontology 
course. She cleaned and prepared fossils with dental tools. 
This skull was an asset to her work with Dr. John Clark. For 
his current research she cleaned fossilized skulls and removed 

the lower jaws. 

For Alberta, one of 
the most rewarding 
aspects of the sum- 
mer at Field Museum 
was meeting and 
working jointly with 
the Geology staff and 
other students. 

Interviews with some of tlie SHINNER SCHOLARS 

During the summer. Field Museum granted 11 Shinner Scholarships to college students who are 
interested in Museum work. The students worked closely with their designated Curators to get 
some experience in the methods oj museum research and collection care. Other students, in addi- 
tion to those interviewed, who were awarded Shinner Scholarships irwlude the following: Har- 
Kwun, of Mount Holyoke College, worked in the Botany Department; Terry Chase, of Witten- 
berg University, Springfield, Ohio, worked in the Geology Department; Robert Morton of Western 
Illinois University, worked also in Geology and Harold Stewart of Westminster College, Fulton, 
Missouri, worked in the Division of Insects. 

Income for the Shinner Scholars comes from a grant from The Shinner Foundation. This is 

the second annual appropriation made to the Museum. The late Ernest Shinner was a successful 

south-side Chicago businessman who established this Foundation primarily to help deserving 

young people. The Museum Officers are grateful for the interest shown by the Foundation's 

Trustees: Mr. Robert F. Bradburn, Dr. William T. Carlisle and Mr. John J. Chavanne, Jr. 

Page 10 OCTOBER 

The Division of Rep- 
tiles was well assisted 
by Eric Ahlvin, a zoology student from Indiana University. 
One of Eric's assignments as a Shinner Scholar was to up- 
date the catalog of reprinted articles on reptiles and amphib- 
ians. Eric corrected and revised many of the old reference 
cards and made brief summaries of new articles he added 
to the catalog. 

Eric is from the Chicago area, but admitted he knew very 
little about Field Museum until this summer. In addition 
to desk work and assisting Mr. Hyman Marx, Eric was sent 
with the Department's Research Assistant, Thomas Olec- 
howski, to the University of Kansas to receive the Museum's 
recently acquired collection of reptiles and amphibians. 
Overall, Eric says his summer's experiences have helped him 
greatly to choose his field of specialization, herpetology. 

Robert Weir applied for the Shinner Scholarship Program 
through the University of Montana where he is a science 
major. Like several others on the program. Bob was at 
first a bit surprised by the amount of work required to care 
for a collection. For example, the hundreds of fish speci- 
mens stored in jars for study reference must be dusted and 
refilled periodically with alcohol preservative. However, 
tending the collection. Bob says, became very interesting 
when he took advantage of this opportunity to examine the 
individual species and learn their names and classification. 
Getting acquainted with the behind-the-scenes organiza- 
tion of the Division of Fishes was valuable training, accord- 
ing to Bob. In addition, he found the reference work he did 
in the Museum Library for Dr. Loren Woods' forthcoming 
publication on fishes particularly interesting. Next sum- 
mer. Bob hopes to continue working with fishes, perhaps at 

a marine laboratory 
in the Caribbean or 
on Cape Cod. 

Christine Miller spent 
her summer at the 
Museum working in 
the Anthropology 
Department at a va- 
riety of projects. 
When Dr. Fred Rein- 
man returned from 
Guam, Chris helped to unpack, label, sort and organize the 
collection he brought back. Another task in the Pacific 
Research Laboratory was to assist Dr. Phillip Lewis in mak- 
ing an IBM locator file for the Micronesian and Philippine 

Chris's experience at Field Museum has confirmed her 
intention to become a museum anthropologist. After grad- 
uating from the University of Michigan next spring, she 
expects to enter the new muscology graduate program at 
the University of Wisconsin. 

Daniel Dresner has 
spent his summer at 
the Museum at a 
drawing board in the 
Division of Birds, but 
"^^ no sketches of birds 
have emerged from his pen. Instead, Dan has been compil- 
ing a phytogeographical map of South America for a study 
of the birds and mammals of that continent by Curators 
Philip Hershkovitz and Melvin Traylor. No map of such 
detail, size and scope was available for study. Working 
from vegetation maps and from the written records made 
by explorers, Dan has done a great deal of research and all 
the execution on this map which locates ten different types 
of vegetation in South America. For his information, he 
had to turn to sources written in Spanish, Portuguese, 
French and German, as well as English. 

Dan is currently a student in Biology at Roosevelt Uni- 
versity. Since most of Dan's previous research has been with 
living animals, the study of vegetation to determine what 
types of birds might survive in the different regions has been 
an interesting methodological discovery. When asked if 
the study of South America has roused his interest to visit 
there, Dan answered . . . "I've been wanting to go there 
all summer." 

OCTOBER Page 11 


On OCTOBER 10, the Museum will make a special award to J. Eric S. Thompson, 
the distinguished Maya Scholar in celebration of the 40th anniversary of the 
first publication by Field Museum of his book The Civilization of the Mayas. There 
are now over 25,000 copies of this work in print, and it is in its sixth edition. 
The award will be made at a luncheon given in Mr. Thompson's honor by the 
Women's Board. Other guests will include his son, Donald E. Thompson, sev- 
eral of Mr. Thompson's colleagues in Maya archaeology, and Mr. Norman F. 
Carver, Jr., who made the photographs in the exhibition "Silent Cities: An 
Architect's View of Ancient Mexico and the Maya," opening that day. 

Eric Thompson is an Englishman, educated at Cambridge University. He 
was Assistant Curator of Central and South American Archaeology at Field 
Museum from 1926 to 1935. During this period he went on six Museum expe- 
ditions to Mexico, Guatemala and British Honduras and published, in addition 
to Civilization of the Mayas, a number of important papers and monographs in 
the Museum's Anthropology Series. His field work was centered mainly in 
British Honduras, where he studied and excavated numerous Maya sites and 
investigated the culture of the contemporary Mayas. A major part of the Mu- 
seum's Mayan archaeological and ethnographic material was collected on these 
expeditions. His most famous paper published by the Museum (1927) is en- 
titled "A Correlation of the Mayan and European Calendars." The most widely 
accepted correlation today is known as the Goodman-Thompson correlation. 
His life work on Maya hieroglyphs is summed up in Maya Hieroglyphic Writing: 
An Introduction, published by the Carnegie Institution of Washington in 1950 
and in 1 960 put out in its second edition by the University of Oklahoma. 
*-iH. ' "' In 1955 Mr. Thompson joined the staff of the 

Carnegie Institution, where he continued his 
Maya studies until 1957. He now lives in "retire- 
ment" in the Essex village of Ashdon, not far from 
his colleagues and friends at Cambridge Univer- 
sity. There, surrounded by his superb library on 
the Mayas and their Middle American neighbors, 
he continues to turn out scholarly papers at an 
unabated rate. 


October hours: Openfrom 9 a.m. to 5p.m. 
every day. 

October through November Fall Journey: Your Day in Ancient Rome. A 
self-guided tour through exhibits that illustrate many aspects of daily living 
at the time of the Roman Empire. 

October 7 Film-Lecture: Into Siberi.\. 2:30 p.m. in the Museum's James 
Simpson Theatre. Lecturer Raphael Green, of the University of Minnesota, 
illustrates his talk with a color film of this vast, little known region. 

October 10 - November 26 Exhibit: Silent Cities: An Architegt's View of 
Ancient Mexico and the Maya. For details .see page 2. 

October 1 8 New Acquisition : Pre-Coh»ibian Mexican Art. Two new 
pieces donated by Mr. and Mrs. Raymond J. Wielgus. Stanley Field Hall. 
For details, see page 9. 


Audubon Society, Oct. 8 and Nov. 5, 7 p.m. 
Shell Club, Oct. 8 and Nov. 12, 2 p.m. 
N.\TURE Camera Club, Oct. 10, 7:45 p.m. 
Orchid Society, Oct. 15, 2 p.m. 



With the death of Clarence B. Randall 
on August 4, Field Museum lost one of 
its most admired friends and associates. 
Mr. Randall, a Trustee of the Museum 
from 1946 to 1961, had three distin- 
guished careers in his active lifetime, as 
businessman, governmental advisor and 
author. He first came to Inland Steel 
in 1925, and rose to be president from 
1949 to 1953 and chairman from 1953 
to 1956. He was nationally known as 
spokesman for the steel industry, and, in 
President Kennedy's words, as "a force- 
ful and articulate philosopher of the role 
of business in a free society." On his re- 
tirement in 1956 at the age of 65, Mr. 
Randall was made special advisor to 
President Eisenhower on foreign eco- 
nomic policy and served with distinc- 
tion under Eisenhower and his succes- 
sors. Presidents Kennedy and Johnson. 
He was author of several books on busi- 
ness philosophy, and in 1956 published 
his own reminiscences. Over My Shoulderi 
Mr. Randall's association with the 
Museum was not only an expression of 
his interest in public service, but of his 
love of nature. He was, as he put it him- 
self, "a pot hunter turned bi.'-der turned 
photographer," and throughout his busy 
career he managed to find time to enjoy 
these pastimes. As those who have seen 
his pictures well know, he brought the 
same competence to his photography 
that he showed in all his work. 



CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 6060S A.C. 312, 922-9410 


E. Leland Webber, Director 


Edward G. Nash, Managing Editor 

Page 12 OCTOBER 


^ <| Easter. April /4— You may attend Mass at the richly 
I I designed Spanish Colonial Church of Santo Do- 
nfiingo and view its great Colonial paintings and sculp- 
tures. Later, at the State Museum, where you see jewelry 
from Tomb Seven, Monte Alban, the sophistication of the 
Zapotec and Mixtec cultures is revealed to you. In 
the afternoon, you explore the ruins of Mitia, 18 miles 
southeast of Oaxaca. Particularly beautiful are the com- 
plex spiral fret patterns of the Hall of Mosaics. From 
MitIa, it is a short drive to Santa Maria del Tule to see its 
Montezuma cypress — 1 60 feet around and 1 65 feet tall — 
estimated to be thousands of years old. 

A f^ Monday, April 75— You fly to Villahermosa, Ta- 
I ^^ basco, in the tropical lowlands. With lunch at 
the Hotel Manzur, you then tour the unique Park Museum. 
Archaeological exhibits are in a lush setting of botanical 
garden and zoological park. The mysterious Olmec heads 
and carved altars are considered the works of the mother- 
culture of Mexico's pre-Hispanic civilizations. 

^ ^ Tuesday, April 75— You ride by bus through trop- 
I v3 leal savanna and forest to the ruins of Palenque, 
in the State of Chiapas. Here, with a backdrop of jungled 
mountains, you explore the tomb in the Temple of In- 
scriptions, the Palace with its relief carvings and other 
pyramids and temples. This center of ruins has been 
described by many archaeologists and travelers as the 
most beautiful of the Maya sites. 


Mixtec Indian woman sells pottery in Oaxaca market. 

Photos on back cover: Artisan paints pottery cat, 
Cancionero and guitar, Relief mitral by David Alfaro 
Siqueiros — photo by Homer Holdrcn, Coral tree's scar- 
let flotver. Holy Thursday in Taxco — photo by Juan 

Wednesday-Thursday, April 17-18 — You 
visit the Villahermosa Museum, then take 
a flight to Merida, Yucatan and a bus from Merida to 
Uxmal, where you spend the afternoon and most of the 
following day at the ruins. The earliest temples and pyra- 
mids of this great Maya city were built during the 13th 
century. Much local handicraft is available at your hotel, 
the Hacienda Uxmal. 

Pkotoa by Juan Ettrada 

Holy Thursday Procession builds to a climax amid slow drum beats, peni- 
tents and their burdens of thorn branches and the reverently bornt figure of 
the Crucified Christ, 

A ^ Friday, April 75— You ride by bus to the ruins of 
I O Chichen Itza, witli lunch at the Hotel Mayaland. 
During the afternoon you tour this, the best preserved 
archaeological site in the Maya area. Particularly im- 
pressive is the Temple of the Thousand Columns, with 
its limestone relief carvings of warriors and its dramatic 
plumed serpents. Highlights are the baJJcourt, the enig- 
matic Chac-Mool and the sacred well in which Maya 
maidens were sacrificed. 

i| "^ Saturday, April 20— You continue your exploration 
I I of the ruins. After lunch at the Hotel Mayaland, 
you ride into Merida, to view the central square and the 
Casa Montejo. By plane you return to Mexico City for a 
farewell dinner at the Hotel Tecali with its terrace views 
of the great city at night. 

1 Q. ^'^"^^y- April 21 — You return to Chicago on a 
I ^? morning Mexicana flight, with arrival in the early 

OCTOBER Page 13 

make youh i-esei-valiohs NOW 


April 4 +0 21 

be in Taxco for the awesome Holy Thursday processions, visit the impressive 
ruinsof the Aztecs and Teotihuacanos, the Zapotecs and Mayas, see tropics 
and highlands during flowering trees" season, be entertained in important 
private homes and gardens, tour the great museums, Iceep abreast of trends 
in art and architecture, shop in native marlcets, travel with specialists in 
Mexican plants and gardening and in Mexican archaeology and folk history 

(also corers all costs - - hotels, meals, gratuities, taxes and fees, 
guides, transportation and baggage handling) 

act now— 

the number 

of reservations 

is limited 

I would like reservations for your Mexican Tour and I enclose my check 


for a $200 deposit for each reservation 



City State 

□ Please check if single rooms are desired, at extra charge. 


Please send information about this tour to my friends listed below: 



Name . . 
City .... 






Volume 38, Number 11 November, 1967 

The two careers of Fritz Haas 

by Alan Solem, Curator, Lower Invertebrates 

On October 20, 1908, the fourth number in the fortieth 
volume of the Nachrichtshlatt der Deutschen Malakozoologischen 
Gesellschqft was issued in Frankfurt-am-Main. Among the 
many technical reports, there were three short papers on 
fresh-water clams written by a young German zoologist, 
Fritz Haas. Since the preceding year, at the suggestion of 
Wilhelm Kobelt, he had been studying the variation and 
ecology of unionid clams in the Upper Rhine basin. 

Now, at the start of his sixtieth year as a publishing sci- 
entist, it is appropriate to review and summarize his career. 
As these words were being written, Fritz Haas was reading 
galley and page proof of two much longer papers. One 
summarizes the living and fossil genera of unionid clams for 
the "Bivalvia" section in the Treatise on Invertebrate Palaeon- 
tology. It numbers only a few hundred manuscript pages. 
The other is a synopsis for "Das Tierreich" covering all liv- 
ing species of unionid clams. It comprises about 1 ,000 typed 
pages. Either monograph would be a major contribution 
from any systematist. Both were written by Fritz Haas con- 
siderably after the normal retirement age of 65. 

The bare statistics of his career are impressive — a bibli- 
ography with 319 entries and a list of 385 new genera and 
species produced over six decades. Very few scholars com- 
pile such a record, but Fritz Haas will be remembered long- 
est, not for the number of papers he wrote, nor for the many 
taxa he described, but for the major synthetic papers he 
published and the many more "species" that he reduced to 
synonymy. His 1940 revision "A tentative classification of 
the Palearctic Unionids" grouped 1,309 described forms of 
unionid clams into only 19 species, with 65 geographic races. 
The "Bivalvia" section in Bronn's Klassen und Ordnungen des 
Tierreichs (1929-1956), "Die Unioniden" in Martini-Chem- 
nitz (1910-1919), the series of papers on Spanish moUusks 

worked with Wilhelm Kobelt. Both men had a profound 
influence on his subsequent career. Meticulous descriptions 
and well chosen illustrations characterize Haas' papers, and 
his early descriptions follow the pattern used by Boettger. 
Haas' continuing interest in the unionid clams, his grasp of 
ecology and his great interest in zoogeography, all came 
from early association with Kobelt. 

In this day of population biology and the application of 
evolutionary theory to systematics, it is difficult to realize 
the status of molluscan taxonomy during the early 1900's. 
As nineteenth century Europe had been torn and divided 
by the Napoleonic and Franco-Prussian wars, so malacol- 
ogy had become divided into opposed camps. Starting in 
the 1870's, under the leadership of Bourguignat, workers in 
France and Italy began describing, literally by the hun- 
dreds, "species" of land and fresh-water moUusks. Their 
"nouvelle ecole" totally ignored factors of the soft anatomy, 
phenotypic and intrapopulational variation, geography, 
hinge structure, and shell sculpture in the unionids. They 
used a completely typological approach, relying on a few 
gross shell measurements and simple ratios to discriminate 
their "species." Carried to its logical extreme, almost every 
specimen became a "species." The influence of this school 
still haunts systematic malacology, since it is far simpler to 
propose new names than to prove that named forms are 
minor variations of biological species. 

Even at the height of Bourguignat's influence, many 
malacologists did not accept his premises. In France, 
Drouet and the Fischer family, in Germany Kobelt and the 
Boettgers, most of the English, American and Scandinavian 
workers began to grope toward an understanding of geo- 
graphic and phenotypic variation. Kobelt focused atten- 
tion on the probable importance of hydrographic bound- 

Two surprises greeted Fritz on October 20th. First was the publication of Fieldiana: Zoology, 
Volume 53, Number 2, "New iVIolluscan Taxa and Scientific Writings of Fritz Haas," a complete 
list of his publications and new molluscan names. This will be an invaluable bibliographic aid 
to malacologists of this and succeeding generations. 

co-authored with Arturo BofiU (1919-1921), the "Lamelli- 
branchia" section in Die Tierwelt der Nord- und Ostsee (1926), 
"Fauna Malacologica Cataluna" (1929), "Bau und Bildung 
des Perlen" (1931), and his two latest synoptic studies on 
the unionids will assure his place in the history of malacol- 
ogy, even without the many descriptions of new taxa. 

Born January 4, 1886, the youngest of four children in a 
Frankfurt banker's family, Fritz was a naturalist from child- 
hood. Early interests in insects and geological specimens 
were transferred to mollusks through the influence of his 
Gymnasium teacher, Oscar Boettger, a famous malacologist 
and herpetologist, then near the end of a long and illustrious 
career. Through Oscar Boettger, the young Haas met and 

aries and local variation in unionid evolution, but he was 
too old for the intensive field work and collection study re- 
quired. Fritz Haas provided the evidence and hard work 
needed to confirm Kobelt's inspired hypotheses. 

Although Boettger and Kobelt were primarily respon- 
sible for the form and substance of Fritz Haas' work, his 
Ph.D. was obtained under the direction of Prof. Buetschli 
at Heidelberg. A source of quiet pride to Fritz was the re- 
ceipt of a certificate from Heidelberg on February 22, 1960 
honoring the fiftieth anniversary of his Ph.D. examinations. 
While working for his degree he made his first foreign field 
trip, to Norway, for studies in marine biology. His disser- 
tation was concerned with the evolution of, and distribu- 


tional patterns shown by the unionids in the Upper Rhine 
Valley. Considerable field work, both winter and summer, 
was required. Collecting unionids is not at all glamorous, 
but is a wet and muddy activity. Although Fritz was work- 
ing for a Ph.D., even during the winter months he felt it was 
prudent to walk the streets until his clothes dried, rather 
than coming home wet and muddy to face his mother's con- 
cern. This problem is common with young naturalists today 
and is solved in similar fashion. 

Early in 1910 be began publishing a continuation of the 
"Die Unioniden" in Martini-Chemnitz and on January 1, 
1911 was appointed Assistant Keeper of Invertebrate Zool- 
ogy at the Natur-Museum Senckenberg, Frankfurt. Field 
activities in many parts of southern Germany, a continuous 
stream of publications on unionids and work with the huge 
unionid collection were mixed with reports on moUusks from 
Indonesia and the Sudan, his first of many papers on expe- 
dition materials. 

In August, 1914, Fritz and two companions were on a 
collecting trip in the Pyrenees. Human habitations and in- 

Museum. She proved indispensable, and on March 30, 
1922, shortly after Fritz had been promoted to Keeper of 
Invertebrate Zoology, she became Mrs. Fritz Haas. Forty- 
five years later, she is still assistant and helper in his work 
and his devoted companion. 

Economic conditions ended publication of his work "Die 
Unioniden" as part of Martini-Chemnitz, but an invitation 
to write the "Bivalvia" section for Bronn's Klassen und Ord- 
nungen des Tierreichs provided another outlet for Fritz's ener- 
gies. Eventually this project was to number over 2,400 
printed pages. The first section was issued in 1 929, but not 
until 1956 did the final part appear. During the 1920's, he 
also wrote the "Lamellibranchia" section in Die Tierwell der 
Nord- und Ostsee (1926), "Fauna Malacol6gica Cataluna" 
(1929) and "Bau and Bildung des Perlen" (1931). 

During part of 1931 and 1932 he was in southern Africa 
as a member of the Schomburgk Expedition. Material from 
the Congo, Angola, Rhodesia, Kenya and South Africa, 
much of which was self-collected, was reported on in his 
"Binnen-MoUusken aus Inner-Afrika" (1936). 

— Second was the presentation of 1 25 congratulatory letters from malacologists in all parts of 
of the world and from his museum colleagues. In gentle retribution for years of etymological 
puns, the letters were bound with a frontispiece (this month's flt///e^>j Cover) featuring European 
hares. The German word for hare is Haas. Artist iVlarge IVloran included several animal species 
named after Fritz Haas, among them a frog, a fish, several clams and snails, a leech and parts 
of an isopod. 

teresting land moUusks seldom are found together, and their 
infrequent visits to small towns were only to replenish sup- 
plies. Many informal and officially unobserved crossings of 
the French-Spanish border were made. Unexpectedly, a 
visit to a small French town provided a turning point in his 
career. Unknown to the collectors, full troop mobilization 
of the French and German armies had been ordered. Shoot- 
ing had not started, but people were alert for spies and sabo- 
teurs. The appearance of three Germans in a French border 
town resulted in swift arrest. Fortunately, the local magis- 
trate was intelligent and no more in favor of war than were 
the German snail collectors. Instead of being interned, the 
Germans were kept under comfortable armed guard for one 
night, then allowed to go by train to Sete, where they just 
managed to obtain passage to Spain on a crowded ship. 

Hence World War I saw Fritz Haas stranded in Spain 
rather than interned in France. It was not until 1919 that 
he returned to Germany, but the intervening years had been 
very productive. He made quite extensive collections, pub- 
lished studies on historical unionid collections in Spanish 
museums, sent letters to Frankfurt outlining his intensive 
collecting efforts in the Pyrenees and began to prepare the 
long series of papers (1919-1921) with Arturo Bofill that 
remain as definitive works on the Spanish fauna. 

The inflation and economic turmoil of Germany in the 
1920's restricted Fritz's field work, but barely slowed his re- 
search activity. Early in 1 920 he became editor of the Archiv 
Jur Mollusktnkunde, the successor of the venerable Nachrichts- 
blatt. In 1921, a volunteer worker from Mainz, Helene 
Ganz, was assigned to help Fritz Haas at the Senckenberg 

Increasing governmental persecution of Germans be- 
longing to the Jewish faith penetrated even into museums 
and forced his removal as Keeper of Invertebrate Zoology 
at the Natur-Museum "Senckenberg" on June 30,. 1936. 
It became obvious that the Haas family had to leave Ger- 
many. Personal savings were used for Fritz to visit Brazil 
and the United States in search of a job. During the first 
part of 1937 he collected in northeastern Brazil, the osten- 
sible reason for the trip, and was aided by R. von Ihering, 
nephew of the famous Hermann von Ihering, with whom 
Fritz had collaborated for many years. His first attempts 
at job hunting in the United States failed. Economic con- 
ditions of 1937 and 1938 did not permit hiring of malacolo- 
gists by American museums. After considerable difficulty, 
and with the help of the Emergency Committee in Aid of 
Displaced German Scholars and the generosity of the Jewish 
Welfare Fund of Chicago, Fritz Haas was hired as Curator 
of Lower Invertebrates by the Field Museum of Natural 
History, Chicago. Although the United States did not re- 
quire his return to Germany before re-entering the United 
States as an immigrant, in order to be certain that his wife 
and two children could join him, he went back to Frankfurt 
in March, 1938. Permission to leave included taking only 
10 marks for each adult, and on July 22, 1938 the Haas fam- 
ily landed in New York. On August 1 , 1 938 he started work 
at the Field Museum. 

At the age of 52, when many scientists are actively plan- 
ning for retirement, Fritz Haas had to begin a second career. 
From the huge collections and fantastic library resources of 
Senckenberg, which rank among the finest in the world, he 


Fritz in 1938, siiortly after coming to Chicago 
and Field Museum 

came to a Museum where the only invertebrates were left- 
over exhibits from the Columbian Exposition of 1893, there 
had never been an invertebrate zoologist, and only minimal 
literature on mollusks was available. 

During his first 28 years of research activity he had at his 
fingertips unequaled raw materials and library facilities. 
Now, instead of using established facilities, he had to de- 
velop these resources. The Frankfurt Museum had accu- 

ing the sea shells until last. The sight of these numbered 
specimens, lying loose in huge wooden trays with the old- 
fashioned exhibition labels lying torn and dirty beside them, 
gave me some feeling of what the first few months at Field 
Museum must have meant to Fritz Haas. 

At first, with all his efforts required to organize the col- 
lection, publications were few. Early years in Chicago saw 
his "A tentative classification of the Palearctic Unionids" 
(1940), summarizing 33 years' work on unionids in Europe, 
several notes resulting from his work on the Field Museum 
mollusk collection, and the first few descriptions of South 
American non-marine mollusks. In 1942, Field Museum 
purchased the Walter F. Webb collection of land and fresh- 
water shells. Consisting primarily of the Gerard K. Gude 
collection, supplemented by one part of the Quadras Philip- 
pine collection, plus many other shells purchased by Webb, 
this provided the nucleus of a research collection. Many 
small collections from numerous sources were received and 
processed. By 1954, when the 20,000 sets of the Webb col- 
lection finally were completely integrated, 54,000 entries 
comprised the Field Museum's mollusk collection. Essen- 
tially, all of these had been labeled, catalogued and reiden- 
tified by Fritz Haas. 

Through the years, much material from South America 
came to Fritz Haas for study. Some were taken on Field 
Trips and Expeditions of Field Museum of Natural History, 
others came from correspondents or resident scientists in 
Latin America. Fritz Haas also made several brief trips to 
different parts of the United States, Bermuda, Cuba and 
Canada. While he produced many short papers on these 
collections, his main efforts were devoted to descriptions and 

— The occasion of the presentation was also a "bon voyage" party: two days later Dr. and 
Mrs. Haas flew to Frankfurt, Germany, as honored guests at the 150th anniversary of the 
Natur-Museum Senckenberg. 

mulated the collections of competent specialists for 120 years; 
at Chicago there was miscellaneous material of little scien- 
tific importance and a few pretty sea shells from exhibits. 
Over the next 18 years, with only occasional help from 
summer workers and volunteers, he expanded, rehoused, re- 
labeled, and reidentified the miscellaneous collections of 
mollusks in the Field Museum. With the strong backing 
of Chief Curator of Zoology, Karl P. Schmidt: the Museum 
Director, Cliflford C. Gregg; and President of the Board of 
Trustees, Stanley Field, an excellent molluscan library was 
gradually accumulated, modern storage facilities were pro- 
vided and the nucleus of a research collection established. 
With admirable foresight, recognizing the inevitable growth 
of collections, he developed a system of specimen storage 
that uses far less space per set of shells than is required in 
other museum collections. Although at Frankfurt he had 
emphasized research, he greatly enjoyed bringing order out 
of chaos and seeing the collection begin to reach usable pro- 
portions. Progress was slow, and when I first met Fritz 
Haas, in 1943, parts of the original marine shell collection 
still had to be reordered. Naturally, he had given first atten- 
tion to the unionid clams and all non-marine mollusks, leav- 

distributional studies on Latin American shells. Next to the 
Unionidae, he described more taxa of Bulimulidae than any 
other group. Most of these names date from his work in 
Chicago during the 1950's and early 1960's. 

In 1956, I was added to the staff as Assistant Curator of 
Lower Invertebrates, and on January 1, 1959, Fritz Haas 
officially retired to become Curator Emeritus of Lower In- 
vertebrates. Thus progressively freed from administrative 
responsibility, and for the first time in his working days, 
having assistance in the routine of specimen processing, 
Fritz could adjust his work habits to a new schedule. Morn- 
ings he devoted to checking identifications and cataloguing 
material from the great influx of formed molluscan collec- 
tions that were received by the Museum during the late 
1 950's. At first he missed typing his own labels and housing 
the specimens himself, but he soon began to enjoy this new 
freedom from drudgery. Through 1 965 these morning en- 
deavors added an average 5,000 sets per year to the mollusk 
collection. The 156,000 catalogued sets of mollusks now in 
the Field Museum of Natural History were possible only 
because Fritz Haas devoted so many years to routine speci- 
men processing. 


Afternoons were reserved for research. From the sum- 
mer of 1961 until late in 1964, every afternoon was spent 
preparing his manuscript for "Das Tierreich." The grow- 
ing staff was treated to a never ending rattle of his typewriter 
as the manuscript piled higher and higher. A "two-fingered" 
typist, Fritz's speed was legendary among museum secre- 
taries. After completing the unionid revision, Fritz switched 
to full-time work on the formed collection backlog, except 
for occasional study of new South American material. In 
December, 1965 he suffered a stroke and, until recently, was 
only partly active. Resumption of activity and arrival of 
galley sheets fortunately coincided. 

For decades his hobby has been etymology and his lin- 
guistic abilities are considerable. By his own reckoning, he 
speaks German, English, French, Spanish and Catalonian, 
and can read and understand Portuguese, Italian, Dutch, 
Swedish, Danish, Latin and Greek. More than slight knowl- 
edge of several other languages was often evident, but he 
never claimed fluency. Throughout his life he has been a 
voracious reader and, in every sense of the word, Fritz Haas 
is a truly educated man. His knowledge of the humanities 
is encyclopaedic. In later years, he over-awed generations 
of students from Antioch College who could not believe that 
a scientist would know more art, literature or music than a 
college major in that subject. 

Of equal amazement, then delight to successive student 
workers, and of continual plessure to the Museum staff, is 
his pixilated sense of humor. Often one is left speechless. 
Although slowed by the stroke, his humor remains undimin- 
ished. In mid-1966, our new divisional secretary, Mrs. Ren- 
dleman, was brought up short by being called "Mrs. 
Debarker."! Although managing to retaliate with "Dr. 
Bunny," she was corrected, with a twinkle, as to her mis- 
taken etymology. On his return this year from Florida, 
where he had been a refugee from cold and snow since 
Christmas, he replied to questions about how he felt with 
"My doctor hasn't told me yet!" In keeping with this, 
although many species and several genera have been named 
after him, his greatest pleasure was in learning of Pisidium 

' Rendleman may be derived from the German Rindenmann, the 
person who strips the bark off logs in a sawmill. 

Fritz in 1964, at the 
meetings of the American 
Malacological Union 

lepus Kuiper, 1957, a translation of his name well fitting his 
sense of humor. 

Throughout the years, he has served as a major resource 
for the scientific and library staff of Field Museum. Some 
of my earliest memories concern the streams of Museum 
staff with questions as to European or African localities, 
letters to be translated, or classical allusions to be explained. 
Instead of coffee breaks, Fritz takes walking breaks through 
the other scientific departments. It soon became a habit to 
hold queries for him. Often the short walk developed into 
a long absence during which he aided in some translation 
or helped locate some obscure locality. He was often the 
despair of our telephone operator who had to locate him 
"somewhere" in the building. 

Work has always been a personal and private matter for 
Fritz Haas. In keeping with the tradition of Kobelt, who 
refused to publish his own views on unionid evolution until 
after Bourguignat was dead, Fritz has not indulged in pub- 
lished controversy. It is only with the utmost difficulty that 
he can be persuaded to comment on papers written by 
others, particularly work relating to the unionids. Simi- 
larly, despite almost 25 years of association and friendship, 
the only comments he has ever made on my manuscripts 
have been to correct the gender of a name or to insert needed 
diacritical marks. By the same token, his manuscripts were 
not shown to other malacologists prior to publication for 
comments and suggestions. Conversations with Fritz on 
any subject but scientific matters are delightful and fasci- 
nating, but none of his Museum colleagues can recall having 
had a lengthy scientific discussion with him. 

This seeming aloofness from controversy and lack of com- 
munication with fellow scientists express the mores of a 
gentler era and the view of a truly inner directed man. 
Throughout his two careers, in Frankfurt as the user of 
major research facilities, and in Chicago as the developer 
of major research facilities, his life has been guided in a 
successful search for knowledge. Few people have a dis- 
tinguished career of thirty working years. We are proud 
and grateful that Fritz Haas' second thirty-year career is 
being spent at the Field Museum of Natural History. 

Eskimo Whaling; 

By James W. VanStone, Associate Curator, 

North American Archaeolog'y and Ethnology 

The village of Point Hope on the Bering Strait, is some 
700 air miles from Anchorage. The author relates two 
objects collected there in 1897 to his own observations on 
Eskimo culture, made seventy years later. 

In field museum's ethnographic collec- 
tions from northwest Alaska are two 
skillfully carved representations of the 
bowhead whale {Balaena mysticetus), an 
animal intimately associated with the 
economic and ceremonial life of the peo- 
ple of this area . Both these objects were 
collected in the coastal village of Point 
Hope in 1897 by Mr. Miner W. Bruce 
and acquired by the Museum the follow- 
ing year. Mr. Bruce had come to Alaska 
as first superintendent of the reindeer 
station at Port Clarence on Seward Pen- 

My interest in these carvings grew out 
of a general interest in the Eskimos of 
northwest Alaska and specifically in the 
village of Point Hope where I lived for 
more than a year in 1955-56. With the 
idea of learning more about these par- 
ticular carvings, as well as other objects 
in the Museum's Eskimo collections, I 
returned to Point Hope in the summer of 
1967 with photographs of the specimens 
to show to elderly villagers. I hoped 
that the pictures would encourage some 
people to recall details about the signifi- 
cance of these objects to their nineteenth 
century forebears. Some of the infor- 
mation that I obtained is included here.' 

' I would like to thank Mr. David Frank- 
son and Mr. Jimmy Killigvuk of Point Hope, 
and Mr. Charlie Jensen of Kotzebue for their 
assistance in collecting the field data on which 
this paper is based. 

Since both of these carvings are closely 
related to Eskimo whaling and the whale 
cult, it seems worthwhile to make some 
brief comments about this activity at 
Point Hope. Like the residents of a 
number of other communities in north- 
west Alaska, Point Hopers have, for cen- 
turies, hunted the great bowhead whales 
each spring as they move up the coast 
on their annual migration into the Beau- 
fort Sea. Whaling is a communal activ- 
ity involving a number of crews, each 
one using a large skin-covered boat, an 
umiak. Each whaling captain (umelik) is 

responsible for preparing his boat and 
equipment and securing the services of 
a crew. Historically, the umelik has held 
an important position in Point Hope vil- 
lage life. He was normally the wealthi- 
est man in the large extended family 
that characterized village social struc- 
ture, and his position and prestige were 
achieved through skill, energy and the 
inheritance of property. Very often he 
was a shaman (angatkok) as well. Angat- 
koks were men or women who had vision- 
al experiences and special powers which 
segregated them as persons possessing 
unusual control over nature and natural 
forces. There was always one in every 
whaling crew. 

When the whales begin to appear op- 
posite the village in early April, the 
crews go out to the edge of the ice where 
the boats are drawn up in such a manner 
that they can be launched at a moment's 
notice. When a whale is sighted, all 
boats set out in pursuit. The harpooner 
sits at the front of the boat and as it ap- 
proaches the whale, he stands up and 
drives the harpoon deep into the ani- 
mal's body. The whale then sounds, 
taking with it the line attached to the 
harpoon and to a series of floats. All 
boats gather in the vicinity of the place 
where the strike was made and wait for 
the floats to reappear, a sign that the 
whale will soon surface. When the ani- 
mal appears, the boats rush forward and 
attempt to affix other harpoons until 
the whale comes to the surface dead. 

A Successful Whaling hunt. 


After the whale has been killed, the 
carcass is towed back to solid ice where 
the entire village participates in the 
butchering process. All the boats share 
in the whale, each boat crew being en- 
titled to a particular portion depending 
on the order of arrival at the scene of the 
kill. Whale hunters remain continually 
on the ice as long as there are open leads 
or large ponds where whales can breathe. 
When the wind shifts and closes the 
leads, the crews go ashore for much 
needed rest. By early in June, most of 
the bowhead whales have passed Point 
Hope and the season is over. 

This is the manner in which whales 
were hunted during many centuries of 
Eskimo prehistory and, with the excep- 
tion of certain technical innovations 
such as harpoon guns and bombs in- 
stead of slate harpoon blades, it is the 
way in which the activity is carried out 

The Eskimos of Point Hope hunt seals, 
walrus, polar bear, caribou and many 
other animals besides whales. As might 
be expected, therefore, the supernatural 
relationship between men and animals 
was a very important one in aboriginal 
times and was expressed, for the most 
part, through the medium of charms or 
angoaks. An angoak was a simple charm 
worn on the body or clothing, or kept in 
a special place. It could be a stone, cer- 
tain bones, the head of a loon, or just 
about anything. In some supernatural 
manner, a p)erson's angoak associated him 
with certain animals that would assist 
him in hunting and rescue him from 
danger. In a very real sense, they were 
guardians, but no visional experience 
was necessary to obtain them. 

At Point Hope a person usually re- 
ceived his charms, together with a com- 
plex set of instructions, in early child- 
hood from some elderly person who 
wished to transfer his own. The child 
usually took one of the names of his 
benefactor thus becoming his namesake. 
But charms could also be given by par- 
ents in which case they were often the 
angoaks of deceased relatives. Very fre- 
quently food taboos were associated with 

As might be expected, there were 
many angoaks associated directly with 
whaling and this brings us to a discus- 

sion of the wooden carvings in the Mu- 
seum's collections. Figure 1, a and b, 
is the lid of a box in which whaling 
charms were kept, and it contained not 
only those angoaks belonging to the ume- 
lik, but also those of the harpooner and 
other members of the crew. This lid 
features the carving of a whale in promi- 
nent relief on the outer surface (a) ; the 
eyes of the animal are small blue beads. 
On the lower edge of the specimen, holes 
have been drilled in such a way as not 

often fashioned in the shape of a whale 
rather than just having a whale repre- 
sented on the lid as in the case of the 
Museum's example. Often they were 
marked with soot or grease, a mark be- 
ing made for each whale taken by the 
owner of the umiak. An extra supply of 
harpoon blades and other equipment as- 
sociated with whaling might also be kept 
in such boxes. While the umiak was at 
sea, the box was placed under the gun- 
wales at the bow. 

Figure 1. Lid of box for whaling charms. On left, view (a); on right, view (6). cat. no. 
53i2S, 3i.5 cm. wide, wood. 

to penetrate the outer surface of the lid. 
Sinew thongs fastened the lid to the box. 
It is the reverse (b) side of this speci- 
men, however, that is of particular inter- 
est, since directly in the center is an inset 
triangular piece of chipped quartzite. 
According to informants at Point Hope, 
this was someone's personal angoak, prob- 
ably that of an iimelik, and it was kept 
in the box lid so that it would be avail- 
able for instant use. If the captain was 
also an angatkok, as was frequently the 
case, he would have the ability to swal- 
low an angoak like this one and disgorge 
it at will. 

These boxes in which whaling charms 
were kept are called udlun which means, 
literally, "a nest." They were more 

Not all whaling charms were kept in 
boxes like the one just described. A 
charm might be fastened directly to the 
prow of the umiak and an example of this 
type oi angoak is illustrated in Figure 2. 
Such a charm belonged to the whaling 
captain and was usually carved by the 
angatkok in his crew, although it could 
be inherited. The Museum's specimen 
would have been placed at the very front 
of the umiak between the gunwales and 
lying flat on the up-curved end of the 
keel. There are holes for lashing with 
sinew or baleen to the gunwales. The 
carved whale is in high relief and, like 
the one on the box lid, has blue beads 
for eyes. When the umiak was not being 
used for whaling, this type of angoak 


would be removed from the boat and 
stored in the umelik's house. 

With reference to whaling charms in 
general, it can be said that they were 
believed to have a compulsive effect 
that served to bring the whale close to 

Figure 2. Whaling charm for attachment to an 
umiak. Wood, cat. no. 5Si2i, S6 em. wide. 

the boat. In fact, informants called 
the angoak just described, poesowruk 
which means "luck for whale to come 
up close to the boat." Charms also 
served to make the animal more tracta- 
ble and amenable to harpooning. Since 

it was believed that the whale's soul 
passed into another whale when it was 
killed, any irregularity of procedure was 
thought to disturb it. The whale could 
see the preparations that were being 
made to kill it and on that basis could 
decide whether to allow itself to be 
taken by men. The charms, therefore, 
served both to placate the whale and to 
compel it to come close by magical 

In conclusion, I would like to point 
out that this brief discussion in no way 
does justice to the complexity of Eskimo 
theory regarding man's relationship to 
the supernatural world. It does, how- 
ever, attempt to indicate the cultural 
significance of two very fine exam- 
ples of Eskimo craftsmanship. Although 
much has been written on Eskimo 
whaling and associated beliefs, angoaks 
and related objects resembling these 
have not previously been described or 
illustrated. But more important than 
this is the fact that our discussion here 
indicates there is still much to be learned 
about museum specimens from the de- 
scendants of those who made them. In 
northwest Alaska it is no longer pos- 

sible to obtain ethnographic specimens 
similar to those on exhibit in Hall 10 
and in the Museum's study collections. 
But it is possible to elicit additional 
information about these specimens that 
were collected so long ago. Such in- 
formation can add immeasurably to the 
scientific value of the collections. Be- 
cause of the nature of culture change in 
the area, northwest Alaska is far from 
being an ideal place in which to recon- 
struct ethnography. But the very fact 
that there is something left for the stu- 
dent of traditional material culture, 
suggests the possibilities that may exist 
in parts of the world where the impact 
of Euro-American culture has been less 
intense and where, as a result, culture 
change has progressed at a slower rate. 


Rainey, F. G., The Whalehunters of Tigara 
Anthropological Papers oj the Amtrican Museum 
oj Natural History, Vol. 41, pt. 2. New York, 

Spencer, R. F., The North Alaskan Eskimo 
A Study in Ecology and Society. Bureau of 
American Ethnology, Bulletin 171, Washington 
D. C, 195<). 

VanStone, J. W., Point Hope, an Eskimo Village 
in Transition. University of Washington 
Press, Seattle, 1962. 

Ba rrow 


PribJIof Islands 


^^•«^Vo k^ 


recent acquisition — zoology 

Little-known Caecilians Feature of 
New Collection 

The Field Museum of Natural Histor)' has recently re- 
ceived a most noteworthy herpetological collection. The 
purchase of over 1 0,000 specimens of reptiles and amphib- 
ians from Dr. Edward H. Taylor, Professor Emeritus of the 
Department of Zoology, University of Kansas, has greatly 
complemented our Division of Amphibians and Reptiles 
collection. This acquisition represents the second large col- 
lection received from Dr. Taylor, for in 1959 over 25,000 
reptiles and amphibians that he amassed were incorporated 
into the Museum's herpetological holdings. 



^^^^^B i^^H^Sr .^H 



Siphonops annulatus, a worm-like amphibian 

The new material greatly strengthens our representa- 
tions in two areas. It contains much of the studied material 
Dr. Taylor used in his three volumes on the reptiles and 
amphibians of Thailand. This extensive systematic treat- 
ment of the Herpetology of Thailand and the availability of 
the collection of specimens will form an excellent base for 
further systematic research on the herpetological fauna of 
southeastern Asia and the Indo-Australian Archipelago. In 
addition, parasitologists and ecologists (to mention a few 
other biologically interested fields) will have available litera- 
ture and specimens for confirmation of species used. 

In addition, a 900-page volume by Dr. Taylor will ap- 
pear during the latter part of 1 967, monographing the entire 
order of caecilians — Order Gymnophiona (or Apoda). A major 
portion of the matrrial for this scientific text is contained in 
this collection. The earthworm-like caecilians represent one 
of the three major groups of amphibians, the other two being 
frogs and salamanders. These "worms" of the vertebrate 
world are one of the least known and least studied of the 
major groups, due primarily to the extreme rarity of speci- 
mens in research collections. Secretive, burrowing animals 
in tropical forests, they are difficult to collect. Adding his 
collection of this rare group of vertebrates will increase the 
number of the Field Museum specimens two and one-half 
times and its scientific value immeasurably. 

In addition, there is herpetological material from all 
areas of the world — southeast Asia; tropical Africa; Austra- 

lecture — December first 

Dr. Wylie 

to speak on 

Tibetan Religion 

Dr. Turrell V. Wylie, Associate Professor of Tibetan lan- 
guages and Civilization, the University of Washington, will 
speak on Tibetan Religion at Field Museum on Friday, 
December 1, at 8:30 p.m. in the Museum's Lecture Hall. 
.•\ leading Tibetan scholar. Dr. Wylie has been executive 
Chairman of the University of Washington's Inner Asia 
Project since 1962. He has published a number of articles 
on Tibetan culture, poetry and history. 

Tibetan religion is composed of two elements : the first, 
an indigenous primitive system, and later, a highly devel- 
oped form of Buddhism derived from India. 

Siphonops devouring an earthworm. Both caecilian photos by Carl Cans. 

lia; and North, South and Central America. To emphasize 
the extent of this material. Dr. Taylor has incorporated 
much of it in approximately 2,300 published pages on her- 
petology from 1960 through 1967. 

Dr. Edward H. Taylor's long history of herpetological 
publications, dating from the early part of this century has 
left its mark on the history of Herpetology. His prolific pen 
has produced a geographically large variety of scientific 
texts, and much of the material his scientific activities pro- 
duced will be housed, cared for and used extensively in 
future research at the Field Museum of Natural History. 
— Hymen Marx, Associate Curator, 

Amphibians and Reptiles 


Nicaragua Commemorates 
Its Orchids 

Orchid collecting, and growing orchid plants have en- 
joyed an enormous increase in interest in recent years. In 
1 940 I became editor of the American Orchid Society Bulletin, 
then a small quarterly magazine which we hoped to change 
to a monthly. There were about 200 members in the society 












at that time, as I remember. The Bulletin "caught on" and 
sparked a latent interest in orchid growing. The American 
Orchid Society began to grow by leaps and bounds and with 
it, of course, the Bulletin. When I was called away in early 
1943, the Bulletin went to thousands instead of hundreds of 
members — Gordon W. Dillon, a colleague and friend be- 
came editor. The Bulletin nearly 25 years later goes to al- 
most 12,000 members of the Society, an indication of the 
interest in orchids in our country. The American Orchid 

Society has 215 regional societies as affiliates. Not all the 
members of the affiliated societies belong to the parent or- 

Philatelists are another group of people who collect — in 
this case postage stamps. There is enough interest in col- 
lecting stamps that show orchids for the American Orchid 
Society to sponsor a quarterly Orchid Stamps News. Some 
stamp collectors put into their collections all the stamps they 
can get. Most, of necessity, limit their collections in one 
way or another, perhaps to a country or group of countries 
— or even to tropics. The collecting of stamps that show 
only orchids (such a collection was shown at the last orchid 
show in the Museum) must now be an exciting hobby, for 
more and more of these stamps appear. Thereby hangs 
a tale. 

Alfonso H. Heller moved to Nicaragua a number of 
years ago. The orchids of that botanically little-known 
Central American country attracted his attention. He be- 
gan to collect them and soon found that there were many 
more kinds of orchids in Nicaragua than had been suspected. 
Mr. Heller began to study them critically and to make very 
accurate drawings of them from living material. Concur- 
rently he described them from the same living material. 
Mr. Heller is the first person who has had an opportunity, 
and the artistic skill, to do this type of botanical research for 
a Central American country. 

A friend suggested that Nicaragua should have a series 
of stamps showing native Nicaraguan orchids. Mr. Heller 
prepared the material for a set of stamps and from his work a 
series of ten stamps was made. The issue is illustrated here. 

Collectors of natural history stamps will be pleased to 
know a set of Nicaraguan butterfly stamps has been re- 
leased recently. These are based on Mr. Heller's collec- 
tions also. — Louis 0. Williams, Chief Curator, Botany 

Route of the Mexican Tour 

Field museum's Mexican tour April 4-21 will make the long 
strides by air (solid lines) and the short distances by air con- 
ditioned motor coach (shown in broken lines), permitting 
economical use of time and thorough study of the entire 
setting and ecology of the areas. The Tour will travel from 
Mexico City to TeotithuacSn and from Mexico City to 
Cuernavaca, Xochicalco and Taxco by motor coach. It 
will fly to Oaxaca City, but go by bus to Monte Alban, 
Mitla and Santa Maria del Tule. After flight to Villa 
Hermosa, in Tabasco, the group will visit the ruins of 
Palenque, in Chiapas, by motor coach and fly to Merida, 
busing to the Maya centers of Uxmal and Chich^n Itzi in 
Yucatan. Specialists in horticulture, botany and archae- 
ology will accompany the Tour, which will visit private 
homes and gardens and wild areas as well as museums and 
archaeological sites. Tour price, including all expenses and 
a S200 tax deductible donation to Field Museum, totals 
S975. For further information or reservation (accom- 
panied by $200 deposit), write Field Museum's Mexican 
Tour, Field Museum. 


lA/kat r V ludeum r If lemberdnl 


-Members' Night, meeting Curators and Staff 
who guide you through the worldng areas 

-Reserved seats at 
18 Film-Lectures 
during the year 

— Special showings and previews 
of new exhibits 






— Ten percent dis- 
count on books 
and curios at the 
Boo/c Shop, free 
admission and 

—Use of the Library, with its 160,000 
volumes on natural history 


and the Bulletin 

— Natural history 
workshops for your 
children and grand- 

-And most important, you are supporting 
research in our laboratories and in the field 

L^ii/e Irludeum I V lemberSnipA for L^krht 


^J^etp uour friends ^i^joif thede benej^its 




I envelope enclosed. 



The Panamanian and American flags 
flew together over Field Museum on 
October 23, when Field Museum's Dr. 
Rupert L. Wenzel and Lt. Col. Vernon 
J. Tipton, U. S. Army Medical Service 
Corps, received the National Decoration 
of the Government of Panama, granted 
by special decree of Panamanian Presi- 
dent, Marco A. Robles. Mrs. Angela 
Munoz de Lew, Consul-General of the 
Republic of Panama, decorated the two 
scientists with the Orden de Nunez de Bal- 
boa in the grade of "Caballero" in recog- 
nition of their co-editorship of Ectopara- 
sites oj Panama. 

Mrs. Angela MuRoz de Lew decorates 
Lt. Col. Tipton and Dr. Wenzel. 

The book's material on ectoparasites 
is the most complete study ever made 
of these biting insects in any tropi- 
cal country. It contains descriptions, 
illustrations and environmental studies 
of hundreds of kinds of fleas, biting flies, 
chiggers, ticks and other blood-sucking 
insects. Ectoparasites of Panama is al- 
ready being used in vital bio-medical 
surveys now underway along proposed 
routes for a new canal linking the oceans. 
The surveys are aimed at determining 
what disease carriers are present along 
the proposed routes so that measures can 
be taken for their control. This use of 
the Ectoparasites of Panama is just a sug- 
gestion of its potential benefit to the 
health of people living in tropical re- 
gions of America. 



CHICAOO, ILLINOIS 60605 A.C. 312. 922-9410 


E. Leland Webber, Director 


Edward G. Nash, Managing Editor 


Indiana University will present three concerts in its third annual Chicago 
Showcase of Music. Two of these will be free concerts at the Museum: Feb- 
ruary 6, 1968, Alfonso Montecino, Pianist; and March 26, 1968, The Baroque 
Chamber Players. Tickets for these concerts may be obtained by sending a 
request to Indiana University Concerts, care of Field Museum. 

The first concert will be presented at Orchestra Hall, Monday, November 
20, 1967, and will be by the Indiana University Philharmonic Orchestra. 
Tickets for this concert may be purchased at Orchestra Hall. However, in 
appreciation of the Museum's cooperation in the presentation of the Showcase 
of Music Series, the Indiana University Foundation has made available, for 
Museum members, a limited number of free tickets. These tickets will be sent 
to members requesting them, as long as the supply lasts. Requests will be 
filled in the order received. 

QAICMQAp Qp FVENTS November hours: Open from 9 a.m. to 

4 p.m. daily and until 5 p.m. Saturdays, 
Sundays, Thanksgiving and Nov. 24. 

November 4 Film-Lecture: The Philippines by CliflTord J. Kamen. 2:30 in 
James Simpson Theatre. 

November 5 Audubon Film Series: Tidewater Trails by Charles T. Hotch- 
kiss. This color film recaptures the wild beauty of 1 8th century tidewater 
Virginia. 2:30 p.m. in James Simpson Theatre. 

November 1 1 Film-Lecture : Men Against the Ice by Bjorn Staib. 2 :30 p.m. 

November 18 Film- Lecture : Red China by Jens Bjerre. 2:30 p.m. 

November 25 Film-Lecture : England and Wales by Gerald Hooper. 
2:30 p.m. in James Simpson Theatre. 

November 29 Members' Preview of New Permanent Exhibition : Tibet — 
High Land of Monk and Nomad. Hundreds of specimens portray both 
the religious and secular lives of the little-known Tibetans whose ancient 
way of life is rapidly changing under the Chinese Communist regime. A 
movie shows the remote Himalayan civilization. The exhibit opens to the 
public the following day. 

Through November 26 Exhibit: Silent Cities: An Architect's View of 
Ancient Mexico and the Maya by Norman F. Carver. Hall 9 Gallery. 

Through November Fall Journey: Your Day in Ancient Rome. 

December 1 Lecture on Tibet by Dr. Turrell V. Wylie, Associate Professor 
of Tibetan Language and Civilization at the University of Washington, 
Seattle. Dr. Wylie will talk on Tibetan religion, illustrating his points with 
color slides. 8:30 p.m. in the Museum's Lecture Hall. 

December 10- January 21 Exhibit: New Guinea: Birds, Books and Stamps. 
This exhibit annoimces the American release of the book Handbook of Birds 
of New Guinea by Drs. Rand and Gilliard, and the recent acquisition of a 
large collection of study skins of New Guinea birds. Hall 9 Gallery. 

December 1 6 City- Wide Youth Orchestra Concert. Under the leadership 
of Mrs. Fanny Hassler, 50 Chicago area youngsters, aged 12 to 17, present 
music by Franck, Brahms, Tchaikovsky and Mendelssohn. 2 p.m. in James 
Simpson Theatre. 

Audubon Society, Nov. 1, 7 p.m. 

..^,.^,,,-,„ Chicago Shell Club, Nov. 12, 2 p.m. 
MEETINGS: ,.. „ ^ at ^A n ac 

Nature Camera Club, Nov. 14, 7:45 p.m. 

Illinois Orchid Society, Nov. 19, 2 p.m. 




Volume 38, Number 12 December 1967 


In creating its new permanent exhibit 
'Tibet, High Land of Monk and Nomad," 
Field Museum drew on its two greatest 
resources: the superb collections of cultural 
materials, and the varied skills and talents 
of its staff. 

The Tibetan collections, in the main, were 
gathered by Berthold Laufer on the Mrs. T. B. 
Blackstone Expedition to China and Tibet 
from 1 908 to 1 91 0. Laufer, Chief Curator 
of Anthropology for many years, was a 
famed Sinologist and Tibetanist. He amassed 
a wide variety of materials and artifacts, 
ranging from toys and costumes to kitchen 
utensils and religious objects. His material, 
along with some later additions, has enabled 
Field Museum to give something of the "feel" 
of life in nineteenth century Tibet. Since 
religion dominated the social structure and 
life of Tibet, the new exhibit gives a 
strong emphasis to the religious life of the 
Tibetan Buddhist, although many common, 
everyday things are displayed. 
The Tibetan project began some four years 
ago, with the completion of the Chinese 
Hall, "China in the Ch'ing Dynasty." 
Kenneth Starr, Curator of Asiatic Archaeology 
and Ethnology, was in over-all charge of 
the planning of the exhibit. Working closely 
with him were artist Theodore Halkin and 
Assistant Georgette Meredith, a student 
of Tibet, now on the faculty of the University 
of Wichita. The physical design of the 
exhibit is Halkin's work and he has introduced 
a number of departures in museum 
exhibition. The use of carpeting and color, 
particularly a rich Tibetan red, greatly 
enhances the attractiveness of the exhibit. 
See-through exhibit cases are used for the 
greater display of material. Perhaps the 
most interesting innovation is the construction 
of a small theater in which a short film 
on Tibet will be shown. The film was taken 
in 1926 and 1927, when the traditional 
ways of nineteenth century Tibet had not 
yet been disturbed. The ten-minute film serves 
as a kind of focus for the entire exhibit, 
showing the high, rugged landscape, nomads 
with their herds of yak, a market scene, 'and 
a pageant in one of the great Tibetan 


Curator Kenneth Starr assembles a "ghost trap" for exhibit opening. The trap, 
which is supposed to attract illness-causing ghosts, is used in treating the sick. 
It was made for the Museum by Dagmola Sakyapa, of Seattle. Mr. Sakyapa and 
his wife demonstrated Tibetan music and dance at the Members' Preview of the 
exhibit. The University of Washington is an important center of Tibetan studies 
and the Tibetan colony in Seattle is probably the largest in the country. 

Dozens of people become involved as an 
exhibit progresses. While Ted Halkin worked 
on the physical concept of the exhibit, 
beginning with a small cardboard and plywood 
mock-up. Miss Meredith worked on the 
scientific end, researching the files and catalogs 
of the collections, and preparing the hundreds 
of labels. Mrs. Christine Danziger, 
Conservator, and Walter Reese, Preparator, 
restored many of the objects in the Museum's 
Robert R. McCormick Conservation 
Laboratory. With the dirt and stains of the 
years removed, and the surfaces treated, a 
large number of the objects appear in the 
exhibit as they appeared when first purchased 
in the markets of Tibet. 
As time went on, the activity spread. 
James Shouba, Building Superintendent, 
became a kind of general liaison between the 
Departments of Anthropology and 
Exhibition and the various service divisions 
and suppliers. His knowledge, energy — and 
natural diplomacy — solved a good many 
problems. The physical construction of 
the exhibit involved the work of the Museum's 
carpenters, electricians, engineers and 
painters. The Museum Press edited and printed 
the labels. The Divisions of Photography 
and Motion Pictures lent their skills. 
The final installation of the exhibit was the 
work of the newly-formed Department 
of Exhibition. After Ted Halkin began a leave 
of absence (he is teaching this year at 
Kendall College in Evanston), artist Walter 
Boyer, who had been working with Halkin for 
nearly two years, supervised the installation. 
Assisting Boyer were artist Marion Pahl, 
Preparator Walter Huebner and other 
members of the Department of Exhibition. 
The arrangements for the exhibit's opening, 
including a special Members' Preview 
on November 29th were made by the 
Department of Planning and Development. 
In short, few people in the Museum 
organization are left untouched by an exhibit 
of this size, and many share the credit 
for its success. 

Above, Marion Pahl paints mural based on Chi- 
nese block print. The mural serves as a connecting 
link with the adjacent Chinese Hall China and Tibet 
have long been closely connected culturally and eco- 
nomically. Some of the artifacts collected in Tibet are 
actually of Chinese manufacture, made in Peking for the 
Tibetan market. 

Below, Building Superintendent James Shouba, 
left, and artist Walter Boyer inside an exhibit case. On 
the table are Buddhist prayer wheels. Magic knives, used 
in certain ceremonies, are suspended from the ceiling of 
the case. 



--'**>"Srv«'7^*^X*'«vviv|*\'*v^-*'-\v^^v> •\\>*'«- s.■\^. 

<.\.-^-v- V— v.-\-<. 

The Museum received this letter from the Dalai Lama, 
in exile in India, about the exhibit. 


I am happy to learn that the Field Museum of Natural History 
in Chicago is opening a new Tibetan exhibition gallery. I 
feel confident that it will help to create a better understanding 
of our unique Tibetan culture for the great many visitors who 
come to the Museum every year. 

While thanking the people who have made this Tibetan 
exhibition possible, I also pray sincerely for the success of 
this noble task which contributes much towards the preser- 
vation of various cultures of the world. 

The Dalai Lama 
Swarg Ashram 
Dharmsala Cantt. 
District Kangra Wj^ ' 

Himachal Pradesh, Bk " 


Preparator Walter Huebner mounts a relief map 
of the "Roof of the World" in the exhibit theater. 


Parts of tibet were occupied from prehistoric times, when, 
as now, the region was peripheral to the main Asian cul- 
tural centers. In early times Tibet was an isolated land 
occupied by clans whose independent leaders exercised au- 
thority over their own small territories. During the 6th 
century a.d. a group of clan chiefs united behind one leader, 
and by mid-7th century the country had become a military 
power with its capital at Lhasa in central Tibet. The first 
historical king, Namri Sontsan, led successful forays into 
China, India and Turkestan. About a.d. 640 his son. King 
Songsten Gampo, demanded royal wives from China and 
Nepal, and it was these Buddhist princesses who were re- 
sponsible for the introduction of the Buddhist religion into 
Tibet. In the following centuries, Tibetan history and cul- 
ture became inextricably entwined with Tibetan religion, 
for with the introduction of Buddhism came the beginnings 
of a new civilization, and subsequent political events were 
accompanied by the successive promotion or proscription of 
either Buddhism or the native animistic Bon religion. Even 
after the final victory of Buddhism in the 11th century, con- 
flicts for political power continued between the adherents 
of the various sects. 

In the 10th century religious controversies contributed 
to the disintegration of central authority, and Tibet once 
again became a land of many local chieftaincies. The dis- 
trict of Guge, located in western Tibet, became an impor- 
tant cultural center at that time. The 11th century was a 
period of particularly intense religious activity. Students 
were sent to India to clarify doctrinal points, and two great 
masters of Buddhism, Atisa and Padmasambhava, were in- 
vited to come to Tibet. These two theologians traveled 
widely throughout the country, and their teachings were 
responsible for far-reaching reforms and the development of 
important new sects. 

When the Mongols attacked the still divided country in 
A.D. 1239, the influential head lama of the Sakya sect was 
empowered to deal with the Mongol leaders, who made him 
the ruler of central Tibet. The nephew of the monk so im- 
pressed Kublai Khan that the Khan took religious instruc- 
tion from him and made Lamaism the national religion of 
his empire. When Mongol power collapsed, the power of 
the Sakya hierarchy declined, and another period of politi- 
cal and religious chaos followed. 



Toward the end of the 14th century, another great re- 
former, Tseng Khapa, founded the Yellow Hat sect, the 
Gelugpa. The concept of priestly rebirth, which later 
developed into the doctrine of reincarnation of deities in 
human form epitomized by the Dalai Lamas, originated 
with this sect. 

Internal political wars continued throughout the 15th 
and 16th centuries. The Mongols, who attacked Tibet 
again in 1566, were attracted to the doctrines of the Ge- 
lugpa, and in 1588 the grandson of the Mongol Altan Khan 
was selected as the 4th Dalai Lama. With the help of the 
Mongols the great 5th Dalai Lama defeated the rebellious 
king of Tsang, or Central Tibet, thereby achieving com- 
plete spiritual and temporal power for his sect over all of 
Tibet. This control lasted until the mid-20th century. 

Out of gratitude, the 5th Dalai Lama appointed his re- 
ligious preceptor head lama of the Tashilumpo Monastery, 
and proclaimed him a reincarnation of Amitabha, the spir- 
itual guide of Avalokitesvara, the deity embodied in the 
Dalai Lama. The next incarnation of this lama became 
known as the Panchen (or Tashi) Lama. Although Panchen 

Lamas have not been officially involved in temporal affairs, 
subsequent incarnations became political pawns whose fa- 
vors were curried by the Chinese, and later by the British, 
when the Dalai Lamas were reluctant to cooperate with 
them. During the following four centuries, the holders of 
these two high offices were destined to recurring exile and 
triumphant return, depending upon the constantly vacillat- 
ing political situation. 

The Chinese, suspicious of British assistance to Nepalese 
Gurkha invasions of Tibet, closed Tibet to foreign contact. 
It was not until the bloody Younghusband Expedition of 
1903-04 that Tibet came under British influence. During 
the first half of the 20th century the British, who supported 
the Dalai Lama, continued to vie for control of Tibet with 
the Chinese, who backed the Panchen Lama. After the 
Chinese Communists gained control in 1951, both lamas 
were permitted seats in the National Peoples Congress, but 
in 1959 the Dalai Lama for the second time was forced to 
return in exile to India, and the Panchen Lama continued 
in forced cooperation with the Chinese. 


Nama, god of death 

An Introduction 

The religion of Tibet consists of two components, one, 
an indigenous primitive system of beliefs and practices and, 
two, a highly developed form of Buddhism subsequently de- 
rived from India. 

The original Tibetan religion, called Bon, was charac- 
terized by good and evil spirits who inhabited every aspect 
of the natural world, and who could be controlled or ap- 
peased by magicians using spells, charms and even human 
sacrifice. Bon existed in Tibet from very early times. 

Buddhism was first introduced into Tibet from India in 
A.D. 640. By that time it already was characterized by the 
presence of many Buddhas and other deities that had been 
incorporated into the faith during the prior 1100 years of 
its existence in northern India. Although actively pro- 
moted by the reigning Tibetan monarchs, Buddhism was 
not accepted by the majority of the Tibetan people until it 
incorporated as protective deities all the demons of the Bon 
religion which had continued to prevail. The first Buddhist 
monastery in Tibet was founded in a.d. 779 at Samye in 
southcentral Tibet, and there devotees learned from highly 
respected Indian and Tibetan teachers the doctrine and 
techniques for escaping from the misery of the never-ending 
life cycle described originally by the historical Buddha. In 
competition with Buddhism, the native Bon religion ac- 
quired a similar doctrine and pantheon, and for many years 
an active struggle for power went on between the corre- 
sponding noble and ecclesiastical members of the two faiths. 
By the 11th century Buddhism had gained the upper hand, 
and the formation of rival sects began. Reforms continu- 
ally were undertaken to halt — if only temporarily — the con- 
stant tendency of the Tibetan version of Buddhism to rely 
more strongly on magic and demon worship for salva- 
tion, rather than on proper knowledge and behavior. 
As they grew powerful the various Buddhist sects be- 
came ever more involved in temporal affairs. Their 
rise and status also became a matter of active inter- 
est to the governments of China and Mongolia 
with whom Tibet had maintained cultural and 
political relations since early in the 7th century. 
China, in particular, most especially in the 
\ 17th century, played a major role in Tibet- 

an politics. The most recent of the re- 
formed sects, the Gelugpa, or Yellow Hat 
sect, gained ecclesiastical and cultural 
control in the 17th century, and its 
head, known popularly as the Dalai 
Lama, an incarnation of the guard- 
ian deity of Tibet, still held sway 
until Tibet again fell under Chinese 
control in the present century. 


Sectarianism in Tibetan Buddhism 

by Turrell V. Wy/ie, Associate Professor of Tibetan Languages and Civilization 

The Vajrayana form of Mahayana Buddhism was actively 
introduced into Tibet in the 8th century A.D. by the Indian 
guru Padmasambhava. Subsequently, there arose politico- 
religious conflict between those who embraced the new re- 
ligion and those who remained faithful to the teachings of 
Bon (Pon),^ the native shamanism of Tibet. This conflict 
culminated in the persecution of Buddhism during the reign 
of King Glang-dar-ma (Lang-dar-ma), who was assassinated 
in A.D. 842. The assassination led to schisms in the royal 
lineage and the final collapse of the Tibetan empire; while 
the persecution resulted in a hiatus in the oral transmission 
of the proper interpretation of the psycho-sexualized teach- 
ings of the annuttarayoga class of Tantras; consequently, 
the practice of the Tantras became degenerative. 

The renaissance of Buddhism is attributed to the trans- 
lator, Rin-chen bzang-po {Rin-chen sang-bo) (958-1055); 
however, the emergence of sectarianism can be ascribed to 
the great Indian guru, Atisa Dlpankarajnana (982-1054), 
who arrived in Western Tibet in A.D. 1042. Atisa set out 
to rectify the degenerate practice of the Tantric teachings 
and his chief disciple, 'Brom-ston (Drom-don) , established the 
first reformed sect. The disciples of Atisa and 'Brom-ston 
called themselves Bka'-gdams-pa (Ga-dam-ba), "One-of-the- 
oral-instruction." The followers of the unreformed teach- 
ings of Padmasambhava were called the Rnying-ma-pa 
{Nying-ma-pa) , "The-old-ones." 

Not long after, two more major sects arose. The Tibetan 
translator. Mar-pa of Lho-brag (Hlo-drak) (1012-1097), mas- 
tered the teachings of the Indian gurus Tilopsa and Naropa 
and passed them on to his disciple, the great poet-hermit 
Mi-la-ras-pa {Mi-la-re-ba). Mi-la-ras-pa, revered by all 
Tibetans regardless of sectarian ties, is renowned as a yogi 
who achieved absolute enlightenment in one lifetime. His 
disciple, Dwags-lha Sgam-po-pa {Tak-hla Gam-bo-ba), is 
credited with the formulization of the teachings and the 
establishment of the Bka'-brgyud-pa {Ga-gyu-ba), "One-of- 
the-oral-lineage," sect. Several sub-sects developed within 
the Bka'-brgyud-pa school : the most influential of which is 
the Karma-pa (Garma-ba). 

The Sa-skya-pa {Sa-gya-ba), "One-of-the- Whit- 
ish-earth," sect derives its name from the color of the 
soil where the original monastery was founded in 

 Because of the frequent disparity between the 
orthography and pronunciation of Tibetan words, I 
give a phonetic approximation in parentheses after 
the first occurrence. 

1073. Sa-chen Kun-dga' snying-po (Sa-c/ien Gun-ga nying-bo) 
(1092-1158) is revered as the founder of the Sa-skya-pa 

Various sub-sects and splinter schools developed in Ti- 
bet, but the last and most significant sectarian development 

(Continued on Page 12) 

Gilt bronze image of Buddha Shakyamuni 


The publication of the Handbook of New 
Guinea Birds by Austin L. Rand and the 
late E. T. Gilliard of the American Mu- 
seum, has prompted a special exhibit en- 
titled "New Guinea: Birds, Books and 
Stamps," on view in Field Museum's 
Hall 9 Gallery from December 8 through 
mid-January. The American Museum 
has the largest and best collection of New 
Guinea birds in the world and to facilitate 
the work on the Handbook, sent a repre- 
sentative collection to Chicago. In partial 
return. Field Museum is sending a col- 
lection of birds from Southern Asia, an 
area in which our collections are particu- 
larly strong. In the following article, Dr. 
Rand discusses the fascinating avifauna 
of the world's largest island. 

The Birds of New Guinea 

by Austin L. Rand, Chief Curator, Zoology 

New guinea is a tropical island, 1500 miles long, lying just 
below the Equator. It is north of Australia and east of the 
East Indies. A backbone of mountains runs its length, the 
highest peak, Mt. Carstensz with snow on its summit, is 
16,500 feet in altitude. The rich and diverse habitats: rain 
forest, lakes, swamps, and locally savanna and grasslands of 
the lowlands, wet evergreen forests of several types on the 
mountain slopes, and alpine grassland wherever the ranges 

rise above about 10,000 feet, all have provided a fertile area 
for the evolution of its rich bird fauna. 

Often in meeting new people, one of the things you learn 
about them is whether their ancestors came to America on 
the Mayflower, or because of the potatoe famine, whether 
they lived in a log cabin, or fought at Hastings. Let us look 
at New Guinea birds from this point of view. Their an- 
cestors certainly came from Asia. First, we will consider the 


Five species of Birds of Paradise. Ribbon tailed Astrapia (top left). 
Blue Bird of Paradise (top right). Red Bird of Paradise (center 
left), Lesser Bird of Paradise (center right), Raggiana Bird of Para- 
dise (bottom). 

New Guinea-Australian avifauna together, for while the 
Austro-Papuan region has long been separated from Asia, 
with immigration hindered by the ancient water gaps in the 
East Indian Archipelago, New Guinea has only recently 
been separated from Australia by the shallow Torres straits, 
and the difference between the avifauna of the two is due 
to ecological factors, rather than ones of physical geography. 
New Guinea, as we have said, is dominated by a wet trop- 
ical climate and rain forest and evergreen mountain forests. 
Australia is dominated by subtropical and temperate, dry 
climate conditions and desert, grasslands and open wood- 

Many large groups of Asiatic birds never reached the 
Austro-papuan region. Pheasants, trogons, barbets, wood- 
peckers, broadbills, bulbuls, and true finches are absent. 
On the other hand, the New Guinea-Australian area is re- 
markably rich in pigeons, parrots, kingfishers, cuckoo- 
shrikes, old world flycatchers and waxbills, all families well 
represented in Asia and the Sunda Islands. Eleven families 
have evolved in the isolation of the Papuan-Australian area : 
Cassowarys, Emues, megapodes, owlet-frogmouths, lyre 
birds, scrub birds, flowerpeckers, honeyeaters, bell magpies, 
mudlarks, birds of paradise, and bower birds. These are the 
results of ancient colonization at long intervals. 

A few groups of Asiatic birds have sent colonists to New 
Guinea more recently: a crested swift, a hornbill, and a 
shrike, that have not yet reached Australia. 

Some notable groups with headquarters in New Guinea 
rather than Australia are the birds of paradise of 43 species 
(four in Australia and one shared) Cassowaries, 3 spe- 
cies (one in Australia) Pigeon, 39 species (22 in Australia) 
Kingfishers, 19 species (10 in Australia) Flycatchers, 49 
species (30 in Australia). 

Australia, on the other hand, has, in addition to the emu 
and the scrub birds, many sea birds, not only of pan-tropical 
groups, but also those of southern waters, such as petrels 
and penguins. 

At the species level, when New Guinea birds occur in 
Australia they are likely to be in the small areas of rain for- 
est in Eastern Queensland; when Australian species occur 
in New Guinea they are likely to be in the limited savannas 
of south New Guinea. 

About 650 species of birds, many of which are found no- 
where else, have been recorded in New Guinea, which has 
an area of about 300,000 square miles. The richness of this 
avifauna is evident by comparing it with that of Australia, 
about ten times its size, but with only about the same num- 
ber of species. North America, between Mexico and the 
Arctic Circle, is more than twenty times as big as New 
Guinea, but has only about 691 species of birds. 

There are richer areas of comparable size, but they are 
parts of continental tropical faunas like Colombia in South 

America, with an area of 439,000 square miles and an avi- 
fauna of about 1556 species. 

These figures graphically illustrate the richness of the 
humid tropics compared with arid and temperate condi- 
tions. There is another rule to consider: continents have 
more bird species than do islands, and larger islands have 
larger avifaunas than do comparable smaller ones. That 
New Guinea, the largest habitable island in the world, con- 
forms to this rule is indicated by the figures in the follow- 
ing table : 

New Guinea. . .300,000 square miles. . . .650 bird species 

Borneo 290,000 " " 540 " 

Java 48,000 " ' 340 " 

Most New Guinea birds are forest species, but there are 
grassland, marsh, coastal, and water birds. The most in- 
teresting pattern of distribution is the altitudinal zonation 
of forest species. As one leaves the lowlands and goes up 
the mountains, species after species found at lower altitudes 
disappear and other species appear, some to be left behind 
in their turn until at timber line the birds of the forest are 
nearly all different from those of the lowlands. Thus: 

.iltitudinal distribution of Horuteaters of the genus Myzomela 


Mangrove myzomela 


Red spot 



Black & red 


sea level only 

to 300 feet 
to 3,000 feet 
" to 3,900 feet 
2,700 to 6,000 feet 
3,700 to 1 1 ,000 feet 

Three Honeyeaters. Cinnamori-breasted Watllebird (lop left), spotted 
Xanthotis (top right), Redr-backed Honeyeater (bottom). 

The number of bird species found at different altitudes 
also decreases with altitude: 

Bird species in the Snow Mountains, .V«/> Guinea 

Sea level . . . . 

. . (marsh, river, forest) 

. 1 50 species 

2,700 feet . 

. . (forest) 

,.96 " 

9,000 " . . 

. . (forest) 

.65 " 

11,000 " . . 

. . (forest, marsha, lake) 

.50 " 

12,000 " . . 

. . (alpine grass & shrubbery) . 

.14 " 

13,000 " . . 

. . (alpine grass & rock) 

..3 " 


Another important biological aspect related to altitude 
is bird size. VV^here one goes from a warmer to a colder part 
of a bird's range, the individuals within a species tend to be 
larger. This has been codified as "Bergmann's rule" in re- 
lation to latitude, and correlated with area of surface vs. 
weight and reduction of heat loss. A similar change occurs 
within many species on the slopes of New Guinea Moun- 
tains, which also are colder at higher altitudes. Two exam- 
ples of this are given in the following tables : 

Increase in size with altitude 
Swiftlet {Collocalia hirundinacea) 


3,600-4,000 meters 129-135 mm. 

3,225 '■ 121-128 " 

2,200 •• 121-124 ■' 

1,600 " 118-120 " 

White Cockatoo {Cacatua galerila) 


1,200 meters 335-358 mm. 

50 " 302-312 " 

Palm Cockatoo 

One might assume that if this increase in size with alti- 
tude were due to natural selection, that species as well as 
subspecies that have evolved at higher altitudes would be 
larger than those in the lowlands. But, this is definitely not 
true as the following figures show for parrots: 

Wing length and altitude of parrots on north slope of 
Snow Mountain 



(in millimeters) 


81- 91- 





90 100 





In lowlands 2 





75 (species) 

At 1,200 meters . 1 






At 2,200 meters . . 





Over 3,000 meters. 




As with parrots, in general the largest and the smallest 
species live at low altitudes, intermediate-sized ones at higher 
altitudes. Presumably, factors other than temperature op- 
erate. Rather, it correlates with the smaller size of the 
plants, the smaller spaces between them and the smaller 

size of insects and fruits the units of the birds food, at higher 

This would correlate well with the large birds at lower 
altitudes. The fact that the smallest species also live at 
low altitudes seems a contradiction at first, but it may be 
that larger species leave vacant small niches, which only 
small species can occupy. A more general statement might 
be that where one phyletic line has tended toward larger 
and larger forms, another has produced smaller ones to fill 
in the spaces between the big ones. 

Single-tvattled Cassowary 

Some New Guinea birds reach unusual extremes in size, 
both large and small as the range in total length of the spe- 
cies in certain groups in the following table shows: 

3>^ to 6 feet high 
10 to 39 inches long 
4K to 24 
6 to 23 
5 to 31 
3 to 25 
514 to 27 


Cassowaries 3 

Hawks 29 . . 

Gallinaceous birds . . 10 

RaUs 18 . . 

Pigeons 44 

Parrots 46 

Cuckoos 21 

Kingfishers 24 4 to 16 

Songbirds — 2 J^ to 22 

(But, the long-tailed astrapia, with body the size of a jay 
has a length of 46 inches.) 

When we look over our collection of New Guinea birds, 
the incidence of bright colors seems very high. There are, 
of course, the birds of paradise to be mentioned later, but 
there are also the parrots (46 species) with red, yellow and 
green conspicuous in most species, with the exception of the 
white and the black cockatoos; the fruit pigeons, green with 
markings of red, orange, yellow, purple, pink or lavender in 
outlandish combinations: kingfishers with glistening light 
blue or pale blue, one with pink underparts, some vividly 
buffy yellow, some with rich rufous feathers; pittas with 
brilliant blue and red: yellow cuckoo shrikes, shiny blue 
fairy wrens; whistlers with vivid yellow; black and red 
honeyeaters, and a yellow, black and green flowerpecker, 
and another one that is blue and green. 

Conspicuous and bright as these colors are in specimens, 
this is not true in the field. I've looked into a fig tree where 
I knew there were fruit pigeons, but couldn't see one, until 
I clapped my hands and a dozen flew out. The bright lories 


climbing about in a flowering epiphyte are no more conspic- 
uous than brown rats would have been. Bright yellow fly- 
catchers and flowerpeckers among the leaves seem no more 
conspicuous than their duller relatives. It is as though the 
birds are protected by the foliage in which they feed so that 
natural selection had relaxed its severity and allowed colors 
to run riot as they do among the fishes of a tropical coral reef. 

Of all the birds that have bright colors, the birds of para- 
dise stand out, even when compared with fancy pheasants 
from Nepal, quetzals from Guatemala, or the cock of the 
rock from Venezuela. If you prefer bright, gaudy yellows, 
oranges, reds or blues, look at the King bird with a spun 
glass quality to its red back; the long, orange plumes of the 
raggiana bird of paradise or the blue plumes of the blue bird 
of paradise. If you prefer metallic colors, backed with black, 
look at the superb, and the astrapias with patches of irides- 
cent green, blue, purple, bronze, violet, and flaming copper. 

The birds of paradise are notable not only for their col- 
ors, but also for their exaggerated display plumes which 
bear some of the colors : these decorations take the form of 
elongated breast shields, flank plumes, neck ruffs, and wire- 
like plumes with or without flags at the tip on head, flanks 
or tail. These, of course, are the decorations of the male 
and used in his displays, each according to his kind, singly or 
in parties, on the ground or in undergrowth, or in tree tops. 

By comparison, the bower birds are dull, brownish, 
tawny, or blackish, although two have long, yellow-orange 
crests. Their displays take an architectural form, which 

Victoria Crowned Goura Pigeon 

appears only in a primitive way in the cleared arena in 
which some of the birds of paradise display. The gardener 
bower bird actually builds a tepee-shaped "hut" and dec- 
orates a "garden" in front of the door with bright bits of 
flowers and shells. These birds, of course, are polygamous, 
the plain female carrying on all nest duties, as is also true 
for the birds of paradise. 

There are other odd decorations on New Guinea birds: 
the head wattles of the brush turkey, certain starlings, a 
shrike-tit, and some birds of paradise, the wrinkles on the 
base of the hornbill's great bill, and the long, central tail 
feathers of some kingfishers and lories. Crests, too, appear 
time after time; shaggy crest of the great black cockatoo, the 
trim yellow crest of the white cockatoo, the long head fan 
of the goura pigeon, and the sharp crest of the demure 
crested berrypecker. A few small parrots have elongated 
fan-like tufts on the sides of the head. 

The oddest shaped birds are perhaps the owlet frog- 
mouths and frogmouths. The frogmouths are large, 13-21 
inches long and colored like an owl in complicated patterns 
of brown, gray and black, have an enormous gape (from 
which they take their name) with a heavy, horny rim about 
it. They are wonderful examples of omnivorous feeders, 
eating large insects, frogs, lizards, mice, and small birds. 
Nocturnal birds, they sit up on branches in the daytime 
and may point their bills skyward, as though imitating 
broken-ofi" stumps, which they resemble in color. 

Great Papuan Frogmouth 

The owlet-frogmouths are similar, but are smaller and 
more delicately made birds. They are even more owl-like 
but without hooked bills. Five of the seven known species 
live in New Guinea (2 in .Australia). They may spend the 
day in holes in trees, but they are so secretive that almost 
nothing is known about tlieir habitats, and specimens are 
so few that just how many species there are is a problem. 

Among birds with peculiar methods of feeding and re- 
lated structures, there is the kingfisher with a big shovel- 
shaped bill that digs worms from the soil of the forest floor, 
the hornbill with a great bill that helps lengthen his reach 
to get fruits from small twigs in the tree tops as the toucan 
does in tropical America. There are the flower-feeding 
brush-tongued lorys in which the tongue spreads out like 
a brush to sweep up nectar and flower parts, and the brush- 
tongued honeyeater whose tubular tongue is used to suck 
up nectar. A tiny parrot climbs over the trunk of a forest 
tree seeking the wood fungus on which it feeds. A flower- 
pecker that feeds on sweet berries has its stomach so reduced 
that it is non-functional for berries. They go right on into 
the intestines for digestion. The bird sometimes eats spiders 

(Continued on page 14) 


was the reformation carried out by Tsong-kha-pa {Dsong- 
ka-ba) (1357-1419). Originally a follower of the Bka'- 
gdams-pa sect, Tsong-kha-pa founded a new reformed sect, 
which became known as the Dge-lugs-pa {Ge-luk-ba), "One- 
of-the-virtuous-system." To distinguish themselves from 
the other unreformed clergy, members of the Dge-lugs-pa 
wore yellow hats instead of the traditional red ones of other 
sects; hence, the name "the Yellow Hat sect." 

By the middle of the 17th century, the Yellow Hat sect 
had risen to political supremacy through the military assist- 
ance of the Qosot Mongols and the Dalai Lama became the 
spiritual ruler of Tibet. The concept of the "incarnate 

Maitreya, the Coming 
Buddha, holding the 
stem of a lotus in each 

lama," a development uniqvie to Tibetan Buddhism, arose 
in the 14th century in the Black Hat Karma-pa sect and 
was soon adopted by the other sectarian groups. An "in- 
carnate lama" is believed to be a physical manifestation of 
the absolute Buddhahood emanated for didactic purposes. 
Although the Dalai Lama is regarded as the highest spiritual 
emanation of Buddhahood in Tibet due to his position of 
temporal ruler, each sectarian group looks to its head lama 
for doctrinal guidance and authority. 

There are some general differences between the reformed 
Dge-lugs-pa, the semi-reformed Bka'-brgyud-pa and Sa- 
skya-pa, and the unreformed Rnying-ma-pa. The Rnying- 
ma-pa accept Kun-tu-bzang-po {Gun-du sang-bo) as the Adi- 
buddha, and they revere Padmasambhava as the "Second 
Buddha." The other three sects accept Rdo-rje-'chang 
(Do-je-chang) as the Adibuddha. Celibacy is mandatory on 
all Dge-lugs-pa initiates; optional for those other than fully- 
ordained monks of the Sa-skya-pa and Bka'-brgyud-pa; and 
of no dogmatic significance whatever to the Rnying-ma-pa. 

In addition to the general characteristics, there are subtle 
and profound differences between the four major sectarian 
groups in regard to: (1) the lineage of the gurus, (2) the 
basic doctrinal text, (3) the special tutelary deity, (4) the 

Silver image ofAva- 
lokitesvara, god of 
compassion, the 
most highly revered 
deity in Tibet. This 
is the form that is 
incarnate in the 
Dalai Lamas. 

particular defender-of-the-faith, (5) the ontological view of 
absolute existentiality, and (5) the fundamental tantric text. 
Due to the brevity of this paper, a detailed listing of the first 
four characteristics is not possible; therefore, only the last 
two will be reviewed. 

There are two ontological views projxjunded in the Dbu- 
ma (U-ma) (Sanskrit: Madhyamika) Buddhist teachings 
propagated in Tibet. The first is the rang-rgyud-pa {rang- 
gyu-ba), or "self-essense" (svatantrika) view, which main- 
tains that phenomenal objects perceived by the senses do 
not exist per se, but they do have ontological "self-essence" 
because they are constituted from the four basic elements: 
earth, water, fire, and air. The second is the thal-'gyur-pa 
(ta-gyu-ba), or "association" (prasangika) view, which states 
that phenomenal objects are devoid of any existence in truth 
and even the four elements are compounded and, therefore, 
impermanent and relative concepts. According to the "as- 
sociation" view, the nature of the state of absolute existen- 
tiality is beyond all conceptualization. The true nature of 
all things is unknowable and indefinable. For the sake of 
didactic communication, it is called Stong-pa-nyid (Dong- 
ba-nyi), "Devoidness" (Sanskrit: sunyata). 

Besides the ontological views of the Madhyamika sys- 
tem, there is the Sems-tsam-pa {Sem-dsam-ba), or "Mind- 
only" view of the Yogacara system of Buddhism, which, like 
subjective idealism in Western philosophy, denies the exist- 
ence of phenomenal objects external to the observer. The 
"mind-only" school, which is the fundamental teaching of 
Zen Buddhism, was rejected during a debate on ontologi- 
cal views held at the monastery of Bsam-yas {Sam-ya) in the 
8th century and only the Madhyamika views were consid- 
ered orthodox for Tibetan Buddhism. 

The following illustrates the differences in the arguments 
put forth by the ontological views mentioned. The ordinary 
individual says, "This is a wheel. It exists because I can 
see it and grasp it." The "mind-only" view says the wheel 
has no existence other than the illusion of wheel produced 
in the mind by discursive thought. The "self-essence" view 


says the wheel does not exist, because the word 'wheel' is a 
relative abstraction. Scatter the wood and nails of the 
"wheel" over the ground and the "wheel" is no longer per- 
ceived. The wood of the "wheel," however, does have "self- 
essence" for it is constituted of the four elements, which do 
exist. The "association" view maintains that the wood has 
no "self-essence" because even the four elements are com- 
pounded and, therefore, relative abstractions. The self- 
nature of the wood in its state of absolute existentiality is 
the unknowable "devoidness" (Stong-pa-nyid). 

Another way of explaining the absolute state of "devoid- 
ness" is to use the atomic theory of modern science. All 
phenomenal objects are made up of atoms. An atom is 
nothing more than positive and negative charges of elec- 
tricity whirling about each other. "Positive" and "nega- 
tive" are relative terms of reference. What then is the 
nature of that absolute state of existentiality out of which 
"electricity" comes? The answer, according to the "asso- 
ciation" view of the Madhyamika Buddhist doctrine, is: 
Stong-pa-nyid — the unknowable, indefinable, "devoidness." 

Regarding the views of the four sectarian groups in Tibet, 
the Dge-lugs-pa and Sa-skya-pa teach only the Thal-'gyur- 
pa ("association") view. The Bka'-brgyud-pa teach the 
Rang-rgyud-pa ("self-essence") view in the lower levels, 
but abandon it for the "association" view at the higher levels 
teaching. The Rnying-ma-pa are said to combine the "as- 
sociation" view with that of the "mind-only" system. In 
the 17th century, the Jo-nang-pa, a sub-sect of the Sa-skya- 
pa, was all but obliterated from the Tibetan monastic scene 
by the orthodox Dge-lugs-pa because it stressed the "mind- 
only" view in its teachings. 

Monk wearing the yellow hat of the Gelugpa sect. In 
his left hand is a rosary, in his right hand a censer, and 
hanging from his belt is 
a brocade case that con- 
ceals a tiny holy water 

Before discussing the issue of the fundamental tantric 
text it is necessary to clarify the distinction between the so- 
called "right-handed" and "left-handed" tantras, both of 
which are found in the annuttarayoga class and both of 
which utilize sexual symbolisms for psychological processes. 
The "right-handed" tantras are based on the mandala of 

the Five Buddhas of Meditation, with Vairocana as the 
central deity. These tantras were introduced from Kashmir. 
The "left-handed" tantras are based on a mandala of 
female partners (yogini), usually nine in number, with the 
Aksobhya Buddha as the central deity. These tantras were 
introduced from Nepal and are considered unorthodox by 
the reformed Dge-lugs-pa sect. 

Tibetan nomad dressed in a traditional chupa. or long 
robe, carrying a charm box that 
holds an image and paper charm 
for protection against demons, 
disease, bullets and other mis- 

The Rnying-ma-pa regard almost any tantric text as be- 
ing acceptable, but the Dge-lugs-pa accept only four tantras 
and all of these are of the "right-handed" Vairocana type. 
The Bka'-brgyud-pa select from both the "right" and "left- 
handed" tantras; while the Sa-skya-pa accept, in addition, 
some of the Rnying-ma-pa tantric teachings. Ritually, the 
Sa-skya-pa are close to the Rnying-ma-pa. This is un- 
doubtedly due to the origin of the Sa-skya-pa teachings. 
The founder of the Sa-skya monastery and father of the 
formulator of the Sa-skya-pa doctrine was a Rnying-ma-pa 
lama. Many of the ritual objects, together with their cere- 
monies, are rejected by the Dge-lugs-pa, but utilized by the 
other three sects. Thus, the paradox exists that the re- 
formed Dge-lugs-pa and the semi-reformed Sa-skya-pa are 
close on the issue of philosophy, but apart on the question 
of ritual practices. 

In conclusion, then, one often reads about Tibetan sec- 
tarianism as the "Yellow Hat Sect" opposed to the "Red 
Hat Sect"; or, the "reformed sect" versus the "unreformed"; 
but, there are, in fact, many fundamental differences be- 
tween the four major sectarian groups in Tibet, not to men- 
tion the various sub-sects. 


CoNZE, Edward, Buddhism: Its Essence and Development, Harper Torch- 
books, New York, 1959. 

Evans-Wentz, W. Y., editor, Tibetan Toga and Secret Doctrines, Oxford 
University Press, 1967. 

GuENTHER, Herbert V., Tibetan Buddhism without Mystification, E. J. 
Brill, Leiden, 1 966. 

Hoffman, Helmut, The Religions of Tibet, London, 1961. 

Snellgrove, David, Buddhist Himalaya, Oxford, 1 957. 

Tucci, Giuseppe, Tibetan Painted Scrolls, 3 vols., Rome, 1949. 

Waddell, L. Austine, The Buddhism of Tibet or Lamaism, Cambridge, 
reprinted 1958. 


and when it does, these go into the reduced stomach and 
receive the same treatment that most birds' food gets. 

For peculiar nesting habits, there is the megapode who 
scratches up a great mound on the forest floor in which it 
lays its eggs to be incubated by the heat of the decaying 
vegetation. The yoimg hatch down covered, dig their own 
way out, and independently go their way, never knowing a 
mother's care. Many parrots in other parts of the world 
dig nests in termite mounds and in tree trunks as do New 
Guinea species, but one New Guinea species digs its burrow 
up, instead of down, and then changes direction and finally 
excavates the nest chamber above the entrance, a system 
that certainly would keep out tropical rains. 



VuUurine Parrot 

It is well known that sunbirds, of which only two reach 
New Guinea, build pendant, dome-shaped nests. But, it 
seems to have escaped most bird students that in building 
this nest, most of the material is added from the inside. Near 
the mouth of the Fly River, I watched a nest being built. 
First, the female made a loose pendant strand of spider web 
and plant material; then she forced her way into it and 
added material on the inside as the walls became thinner 
while she forced them out to the proper shape and size. 

One of the swiftlets nests in the complete darkness of 
deep caves. There it glues its nest to the wall, lays its eggs, 
and raises its young. It feeds the young insects caught on 
the wing during the day above the forest. Presumably, the 
swiftlet is able to use echo location to guide its flight, and 
find and recognize its nest in complete darkness as the oil 
bird of South America does, and similar to the way bats use 
echo location. 

These swiftlets are relatives of the Asiatic swifts whose 
nests, made wholly of saliva, furnish the basic ingredient of 
the Chinese bird nest soup. The nests of these New Guinea 
birds, little shelves glued to the cave wall, also contain saliva, 
but they contain so much plant material in addition that 
their use for soup is impractical. 

Of course, some of the cuckoos lay their eggs in foster 
parents' nests, as our cowbird does, and the hornbill female 

Papuan Hornbill 

is sealed into the hole in a tree with her eggs, to be fed dur- 
ing incubation through a slit left in the doorway by the male. 

It was more than thirty-five years ago when I first 
walked in a New Guinea forest, collected bird specimens 
there, watched birds of paradise displaying and wrote ac- 
counts of their habits. In the writing and publishing of 
Handbook of New Guinea Birds, there were a long series of 
delays and disheartening events, including such things as 
the repudiation of our contract by one publisher, and the 
mislaying of the original color art work by another. These 
brought back to my mind the obstacles to field work in New 
Guinea. We had a saying, "In New Guinea, if anything 
can go wrong, it will!" A Catholic Mission Brother of the 
back country put it more concretely, "If you have the lamp 
you do not have the kerosene; if you have the kerosene you 
do not have the lamp. It is Papua." This was in the old 
days when we travelled on foot, with carriers, in unmapped 
country; we had escorts of police or soldiers for protection. 
Only half in jest we said the old gods were jealous. 

There were changes coming, but belief in the old was 
still strong. One evening, on the upper Fly River, when the 
new moon was very young the cook boy left off singing a 
methodist hymn to come and complain that the second cook 
was working magic to do him harm. The second cook said, 
not so. True, he was working magic with a sweet potato 
and a piece of broken bottle, which he showed me, but these 
and the words he had been saying were used in his village 
in the far distant d'Entrecasteaux Islands to insure that the^ 
new moon would safely ride across the sky. 

In the present-day scene in which the emerging world of 
the Papuan preparing for independence is linked to the so- 
phisticated world of Chicago by airplane and radio, there 
would seem to be no room for malign spirits. Yet, in Oc- 
tober, a tape-recording of New Guinea bird voices, sent 
from Port Moresby, New Guinea through the kind offices 
of Mr. W. S. Peckover, arrived for use in our exhibit. It 
was completely blank. An explanation was found, of course, 
involving the U. S. Customs, an X-ray search for contra- 
band, and magnetic fields. Later, Mr. Peckover sent a re- 
placement tape which arrived unscathed. 


In these days of bird-watching tours, a comment on pos- 
sibilities in New Guinea is in order. The amateur bird 
watcher who lands at Port Moresby in Southeast New 
Guinea can drive through the savannas to Rouna Falls on 
the Laloki River, twenty-two miles distance, in less than an 
hour and be on the edge of the rainforest where birds of 
paradise display. The Laloki Canyon presents some of the 
most spectacular views in New Guinea. To give an idea of 
what one may see, I can point out that the late Dr. E. T. 
Gilliard spent February 7 - April 1 1 in this area studying 
birds and collecting material for a bird of paradise group 
now installed in the American Museum of Natural History 
in New York. He published a list of about 140 species he 
saw in the general area. These included 13 species of 
pigeons, 11 parrots, 9 kingfishers, 5 cuckoo shrikes, 10 fly- 
catchers, 9 birds of paradise, and 8 honeyeaters. 

In the above, the unusual aspects of the avifauna have 
been stressed, but the visitor from the new world will see 
many birds similar in shape and feathering to those he 
knows, even if they differ in color, pattern, and detai^ of 
structure to indicate they may not be closely related. 

In the forest are perching birds, rails, pigeons, mega- 
podes, that walk over the forest floor; kingfishers, warblers, 
flycatchers, fairy wrens, shrike-like and whistler-like birds 
share the undergrowth and low trees. Nuthatch-like and 
creeper-like birds climb on the tree trunks; other warblers, 
flycatchers and vireo-like whistlers gleaning insects from leaf 
and twig. Perched on trees above the forest and sailing out 
for insects are the black and white wood swallows and the 
demure grey and black-crested swifts. 

The flower feeders and fruit eaters of the tree tops reach 
a particular richness here that is hardly surpassed even in 
the American tropics. There are parrots and lories, pigeons, 
honeyeaters, flowerpeckers and berrypeckers, birds of para- 
dise, and starlings, which may swarm into a tree top in be- 
wildering numbers and variety. 

Much of the above data on birds, and more, is in the 
Handbook oj New Guinea Birds, in a systematic, species-by- 
species arrangement. The writing of the Handbook took 
three years, and publication, several more. This has had 
some unexpected side effects. One was a request to write 
an article on birds of paradise for the English magazine, 
"Animals." Ahother was in connection with the issu- 
ance of four New Guinea stamps, each with the picture of a 
parrot, by the postal authorities in Port Moresby. They 
wanted a brochure describing the pictured parrots. The 
late Dr. Gilliard had already done one for an issue of birds 
of paradise stamps. I was asked to do the one for parrots. 
First day covers with the four parrot stamps on them were 
issued in Port Moresby on November 29. 

The special exhibit entitled "New Guinea: Birds, Books 
and Stamps" is on exhibit in Hall 9 of the Museum. It shows 
a selection of the more striking bird specimens received by 
the exchange, the Handbook we helped to prepare, and some 
of the side effects of the research, such as the first day covers 
with parrot stamps. 

Winter journey 

Magic, Medicine and Minerals 

Today we take for granted man's ability to hurl himself into 
space; to dig, by remote control, in the surface of the moon. 
It is too easy for us to forget the awesome aspect which the 
physical environment presented to man in his pre-scientific 
stage. Lacking knowledge of scientific laws he deified nat- 
ural forces and turned to an organized system of supersti- 
tious beliefs to explain the unexplainable, to understand the 
unknowable. Slowly he crawled up from this quagmire of 
superstition. He stands now at almost the extreme opposite 
position, exhibiting an almost child-like faith in the ability of 
twentieth century science and technology to solve the many 
pressing problems relating to man and his environment. 

Only a tick ago on the geological clock, man believed 
that minerals possessed powers which could cure disease, 
protect from danger, and insure success in all undertakings. 
Chalcedony, the lapidaries informed us, warded against 
drowning and being tempest-tossed. The color of an opal 
faded when worn by the deceitful, but united the special 
virtues of all gems when worn by the innocent. Jade was 
prescribed for kidney diseases, while garnet prevented fever, 
and made its wearer agreeable, powerful and victorious. 
Such beliefs have prevailed from earliest times, but were 
especially prevalent during the Middle Ages. Medieval 
books on minerals — called lapidaries — were essentially 
handbooks of magic and medicine. From such beginnings 
arose the science of mineralogy, hastened by the rise and 
widespread development of the mining industry in Europe. 

The Winter Journey will provide boys and girls, indeed 
the whole family, a chance to explore what to them may 
be a hitherto unsuspected chapter in the natural history of 
the mineral kingdom. As you learn of the superstition you 
will see in the Geology Halls actual examples of the mineral 
involved. Optional visits to the Gem Room, Hall of Jades, 
and some of the Anthropology Halls will provide an oppor- 
tunity to see some of the finest examples of the lapidary art, 
both ancient and recent. A wide variety of gem minerals 
is worn today solely for their intrinsic beauty. 

The current Journey is No. 52 in a series begun in 1955. 
With the successful completion of each four journeys, boys 
and girls are awarded a certificate and title : Museum Trav- 
eler (4 journeys) ; Museum Adventurer (8 journeys) ; Mu- 
seum Explorer (12 journeys). After 16 journeys have been 
completed the Explorer becomes a Beagler, ready to under- 
take a special journey which carries him throughout the 
Museum to study some of the natural history materials ob- 
served by Charles Darwin on his famous "Voyage of the 
Beagle." Successful Beaglers are awarded a certificate mak- 
ing them members of the elite Museum's Discoverer's Club. 

There is no charge for taking any of the Museum Jour- 
neys. Copies of the Journey question sheet and further in- 
formation on the program may be obtained at the North or 
South Door or at the Information Booth. The Winter 
Journey runs from December 1 to February 29. 

— by Ernest J. Roscoe, Raymond Foundation 



Places are still open in Field Museum's Mexican Tour, scheduled April 4-21, 
according to Phil Clark, Tour Leader. 

The Tour, guided by Field Museum specialists in archaeology, horticulture 
and botany, will explore Mexico in its many varied dimensions: Aztec, Toltec, 
Zapotec and Maya ruins, and the mysterious Olmec sculptures, forceful mural 
art and revolutionary architecture, Spanish Colonial and strikingly modern 
private homes and colorful tropical gardens, wild plants in settings of pine- 
forested mountains and tropical rain forest, the exciting pageantry of Holy 
Week's processions and Passion enactments and the flowering trees which domi- 
nate the April landscape. 

Major distances within the country will be covered by plane, supplemented 
in each area by probing trips by motor coach — "to fully see the country, but 
with an economy of time and maximum of comfort," according to Mr. Clark. 
Principal stops will be at Mexico City, Teotihuacan, Cuicuilco, Cuernavaca, 
Xochicalco, Taxco, Oaxaca City, Monte Alban, Mitla, Santa Maria del Tule, 
Villa Hermosa, Palenque, Merida, Uxmal, Kabah and Chichen Itza. 

Price, including all meals, hotels, 
transportation and expenses, and a tax- 
deductible $200 donation to Field Mu- 
seum, is $975. The full itinerary appeared 
in the October, 1967, issue of the bul- 
letin. Reservations, including a $200 
deposit, may be mailed to Field Mu- 
seum's Mexican Tour, Field Museum. 

Olmec sculpture in the Villahermosa, Tabasco 

Closed on Christmas and New Yearns 
Days. Hours Jor December and Janu- 
ary are 9 a.m. until 4 p.m. weekdays; 
until 5 p.m. weekends and during the 
week of December 26th. 
December through February Winter Journey: Magic, Medicine and Min- 
erals, a self-guided tour concentrating on the mythology of gemstones. 
December 1 Lecture : Tibetan Buddhism by Turrell V. Wylie, Associate Pro- 
fessor of Tibetan Languages and Civilization at the University of Washing- 
ton, Seattle. 8:30 p.m. in the Lecture Hall. 
December 8 through Mid- January Exhibit: New Guinea: Birds, Books and 
Stamps with commentary written by Dr. Austin L. Rand, Chief Curator 
of Zoology. 
December 1 6 City-wide Youth Orchestra Concert. The Orchestra, com- 
posed of 50 Chicago area youngsters, aged from 12 to 17, is under the leader- 
ship of Mrs. Fanny Hassler and sponsored by Chicago Park District. The 
program includes music by Franck, Brahms, Tchaikovsky and Mendelssohn. 
2 p.m. in James Simpson Theatre. 
December 17 Audubon Wildlife Film: Three Seasons North, by D.J. Nel- 
son. A color film of a family back-packing into the lake country of British 
Columbia. 2:30 p.m. in James Simpson Theatre. 

Nature Camera Club of Chicago, Dec. 12, 7:45 p.m. 

Illinois Orchid Society, Dec. 17, 2 p.m. 

Sierra Club, Great Lakes Chapter, Dec. 19, 7:30 p.m. 



'I^H^^^B / 0k- J^ 



vjP '^^^^^^^M 

..*"'"' "'~'--''' '-_. 





Dr. frank press of M.LT. will deliver 
the 6th annual series of Holiday Science 
Lectures on December 28 and 29. These 
lectures, entitled "The Internal Consti- 
tution of the Earth," are presented by 
The American Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science in cooperation 
with Field Museum. Eight hundred 
high school students who have demon- 
strated interest and outstanding ability 
will be invited, with their science teach- 
ers, to hear the four talks. 

Dr. Press is currently the Chairman of 
the Department of Geology and Geo- 
physics at M.LT. In addition to Uni- 
versity positions, he has worked with 
government panels and committees, in- 
cluding programs to develop seismic 
methods of policing nuclear tests and to 
create an earthquake warning system. 
Dr. Press's principal research activities 
are in the fields of crustal and mantle 
structure, earthquakes and seismology, 
exploration geophysics, planetary phys- 
ics, submarine geology and theory of 
elastic wave propagation. 

The general purpose of the Holiday 
Lecture Series is to impress selected high 
school students with the excitement and 
inspiration of scientific research. In past 
years, both students and teachers have 
been very enthusiastic about this event 
in Field Museum's educational program. 



CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 60605 A.C. 312. 922-9410 


E. Leland Webber, Director 


Edward G. Nash, Managing Editor